Understanding Uniform Civil Code Of India

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) recently came into limelight after Chief Justice of India S A Bobde talked about it. In response to this, let us know more about UCC and the current status of it in the country.

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) recently came into limelight after Chief Justice of India S A Bobde talked about it. In response to this, let us know more about UCC and the current status of it in the country.

Crux of the Matter

What Is UCC?
The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) comes under Article 44 of the Constitution of India. According to UCC, there should only be one law in India, for matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and adoption and this should be applicable to all religious communities.

Article 44

  • Part IV of Article 44 states: “The state shall endeavour to secure the citizen a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India”.
  • Article 44 corresponds with the Directive Principles of State Policy
  • While drafting the Constitution, B R Ambedkar wanted to implement UCC but due to lack of awareness amongst people and objection from religious groups, it was made volutary and included this is Article 44.

    Article 37 of the Constitution says that although there should be Uniform Civil Code in the country, its implementation is not mandatory.

Uniform Civil Code In Goa

  • However, Goa is the only Indian state that has a Uniform Civil Code but it is known as the common family law.
  • The code was introduced in the 19th century by the Portuguese as the Portuguese Civil Code.
  • Hence, in Goa, irrespective of the religion, everyone is bound by a common law related to marriage, succession, divorce.

Current Status Of UCC

  • The demand for UCC became a part of BJP’s election manifesto in 1998.
  • Bill to implement it across India was proposed in 2019 and 2020 but was not introduced in the parliament.
  • In March 2021, The Supreme Court asked for a reply from the central government on the need for gender and religion neutral inheritance and succession laws which comes under Unifrom Civil Code.

CJI Bobde’s Comment On Goa’s Uniform Civil Code
Outgoing Chief Justice of India (CJI), S A Bobde applauding the Uniform Civil Code of Goa said:

“Goa has what Constitution framers envisaged for India- a Uniform Civil Code. And I have had the great privilege of administering justice under that Code. It applies in marriage and succession, governing all Goans irrespective of religious affiliations.”

  • For maintaining law and order and communal harmony, British didn’t interfere with religious customs in the country. So Uniform Civil Code was never implemented. But Goa was a part of Portuguese India, so it has UCC.
  • The Islamic religious laws taken from the Quran and Hadith is called Sharia Law.
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954, was implemented for anyone who wanted to have their marriage outside the realm of any specific religious personal law. The first such Act was the Act III of 1872, introduced by British jurist Henry Sumner Maine.

Solving the Mystery of Digital Yuan

Let us know about the disruptive nature of world's first digital currency designed by China's Central Bank- Digital Yuan.

Since 2014, China’s Central Bank has been working on designing its very own Digital Currency and is now making real world trials across China’s major cities. But what is Digital Yuan and why is it making such a huge buzz in the global economy. Read the story to know more.

Crux of the Matter

What Is Digital Yuan?
Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP) i.e Digital Yuan is a digital version of China’s physical currency Yuan. Simply put, the aim is to to digitize Yuan currency notes and coins in circulation. The currency is designed by China’s central bank People’s Bank of China (PBOC)

What Is So Amusing About It?
Digital Yuan will be the world’s first Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). It is at present only digital currency that has a legal tender backed by nation’s central bank PBOC.

How Is It Different From Regular E-Wallets?
To avail the services of an online payment, we need to link the wallet to our existing bank account. Thus, a bank is an intermediary for the transactions to happen. Now the money that is transacted via banks is still the physical currency in circulation. Hence in online payments, we are simply transacting physical money via electronic mode.

However, that is not the case with Digital Yuan. To use this digital currency, one will have to install an app, put the digital currency in the wallet and then directly start transacting – just like we do with normal (physical) cash.

What Good Will It Do?
Physical currency is expensive to produce and store. Moreover, it is easy to counterfeit and can thus be employed for illegal purposes. These issues can be resolved by replacing the existing currency with Digital Yuans. Lastly, it will increase competition and thus efficiency in the online payment space.

What Is The Ruckus Around Controllable Anonymity?
Digital Yuan had been under scrutiny for invading an individual’s privacy as it is trackable. As per PBOC member Mu Changchun, monitoring is limited to the transaction undertaken, keeping the identity of parties involved private.

It Is Also Programmable Money
Digital Yuan is programmable – it means that to a larger extent the government can influence the way in which the money can be spent. Say if the Chinese govt wishes to increase monetary flow in the system, they can put expiry dates on Yuan utilisation. This will increase spending, and thus induce the required sentiment in the economy.

How Will The Money Be Distributed?
It will be in 2 tier system:

1. China’s central bank will issue digital Yuan to commercial banks.
2. In turn, commercial banks will be responsible for handing over the Digital Yuans to general public. They will also be provide the service of transforming physical currency into digital.

  • The official currency of China is Renminbi. Yuan is the basic unit of the renminbi, but internationally the word is also used to refer to the Chinese currency.
  • One yuan is divided into 10 jiao and one jiao is divided into 10 fen.
  • The United States dollar is called Meiyuan in Chinese, and the euro is called Ouyuan.

Major Coups In Recent History

As the Prince of Jordan was put under house arrest amidst alleged coup attempts and as the world is witnessing a coup at Myanmar, let's look back to some of the major coups occurring in recent history around the world.

As the Prince of Jordan was put under house arrest amidst alleged coup attempts and as the world is witnessing a coup at Myanmar, let’s look back to some of the major coups occurring in recent history around the world.

Crux of the Matter

Firstly, What Is A Coup?
Coup is another word for ‘Coup d’état’. As per Britannica, it is defined as the “sudden, violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group”.

In coups, military support is considered essential for the ‘group’. Coups are often done by militaries themselves.

Myanmar – February 2021

  • State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders were arrested by military.
  • Military labelled then recent elections ‘fraud’ and took over the nation – 700+ people killed in protests so far.
  • Myanmar had gotten democracy recently, after being under military rule till 2011.

Mali – August 2020

  • President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta was arrested by military, who later fled the nation.
  • Coup took place after months of protests demanding Keïta’s resignation over corruption.
  • Notably, Mali also had a coup in 2012, when military took over after ‘Tuareg’ rebels’ secessionist insurgency

Zimbabwe – November 2017

  • President Robert Mugabe was detained before his resignation was announced.
  • Military took over and ex-Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa was made the President.
  • Mugabe had ruled Zimbabwe for 37 years. He was the oldest leader (93) in the world till his resignation.

Thailand – May 2014

  • Military General Prayuth Chan-ocha took over after months of anti-Government protests alleging corruption.
  • As per BBC, it was Thailand’s 12th coup since 1932.
  • In 2016, Thailand adopted a new military-drafted Constitution after referendum, which grants more power to military in the Government.

Nepal – February 2005

  • King Gyanendra dissolved the Government in a ‘self-coup’.
  • The move came amidst Maoist threat – Nepal was in a civil war for 10 years.
  • Parliament reinstated in 2006 after democracy protests – Nepal became a Republic in 2008.

Pakistan – October 1999

  • General Pervez Musharraf took power after removing PM Nawaz Sharif.
  • Sharif later went into exile in Saudi Arabia.
  • Pakistan has witnessed several coups by military, which retains importance in Government functioning.

Chile – September 1973

  • Chilean military, with US support, took over the nation.
  • Socialist President Salvador Allende was overthrown who then committed suicide.
  • General Augusto Pinochet became the dictator – his rule is remembered as a regime of ‘terror’.
  • The term coup is derived from the French word ‘coup d’état’. It means a “stroke of state” or “blow of state.”
  • The 1999 military takeover in Pakistan led to the then PM Nawaz Sharif being overthrown by General Musharraf.
  • In German, Coup d’état is called Putsch.

Facebook And Its Role In Global Politics

Facebook is constantly in the middle of controversies these days. The big tech giant is currently being scrutinised after more than 500 million of its users had their personal information leaked. Let's dig more into the app's role in global politics.

Facebook is constantly in the middle of controversies these days. The big tech giant is currently being scrutinised after more than 500 million of its users had their personal information leaked. It has been facing an antitrust suit endorsed by more than 40 US states since last year, with reports alleging that CEO Zuckerberg will intimidate potential competitors. Let’s dig more into the role of Facebook in global politics.

Crux of the Matter

Ex-FB Employee’s Account
After working for 6 months at Facebook, Sophie Zhang realized that Juan Orlando Hernández had received likes from 59,100 users during June to July 2018. 78% of these users were not real.

Who Is Hernández?
A supporter of Honduras’s 2009 military coup, Hernández was elected president in 2013. His re-election in 2017 is viewed as fraudulent and marked by allegations of human rights abuses and corruption.

Similar To 2016 US Elections
For these elections, Russia’s Internet Research Agency had allegedly set up Facebook accounts claiming to be Americans and used them to influence political debates on the platform. Later Facebook called it “coordinated inauthentic behaviour” (CIB).

Avaaz v/s FB
A report by advocacy group Avaaz says that Facebook altered its algorithm earlier, it could have stopped 10.1 billion views from accumulating on 100 pages. These pages had spread misinformation 8 months prior to the 2020 election.

FB Denies Such Reports
Facebook spokesperson Andy Stone told Time Magazine:
Avaaz uses a flawed methodology to make people think that just because a Page shares a piece of fact-checked content, all the content on that Page is problematic.

Making Changes For Good?
Facebook recently said it removed 14 networks representing more than 1,000 accounts seeking to sway global politics, including in Iran and El Salvador. It is also lifting its ban on political and social-issue ads put in place after the 2020 US elections.

Users Can Appeal Editorial Decisions?
Facebook’s Oversight Board will begin reviewing content that has been allowed to remain on the platform despite requests to remove it. Content eligible for appeal includes status updates, comments, videos and shares, on either Instagram or Facebook.

  • The Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal concerned the obtaining of the personal data of millions of Facebook users without their consent by British consulting firm Cambridge Analytica, predominantly to be used for political advertising. The app harvested the data of up to 87 million Facebook profiles. The scandal sparked an increased public interest in privacy and social media’s influence on politics.
  • In politics, campaign advertising is the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, and ultimately, voters. These ads are designed by political consultants and political campaign staff. Many countries restrict the use of broadcast media to broadcast political messaging.
  • On December 8, 2020, the Federal Trade Commission, along with 46 US states launched an antitrust lawsuit against Facebook. The lawsuit concerns Facebook’s acquisition of two competitors – Instagram and WhatsApp – and the ensuing monopolistic situation. 

The Success Formula Of Dream11

The Success Formula Of Dream11

With another IPL season kicking off, India’s very successful and first ever fantasy gaming startup Dream11 is back in news. Started by two young professionals for their love towards football, the startup has seen its dry days before turning into a unicorn. But wish to explore how it works? Read on.

Crux of the Matter

Back Story
Harsh Jain and Bhavith Sheth founded Dream11, a sports fantasy platform in 2008. The platform currently offers users to play fantasy cricket, hockey, football, kabaddi, and basketball. Until 2012, Dream11 worked under an ad-based model – it earned revenue through posting advertisements on its platform.

But What Is Fantasy Cricket?
Let’s say a user creates a team of 11 players out of the total squad available for an upcoming match. User gets points based on the performance of their players in the ongoing (real) game. Points are allotted as per runs scored, runs chased, wickets taken, throws, fielding, etc. At the end of the match, each user gets a rank as per the aggregate points scored.

Business Model Of Fantasy Sport
There are 2 types of contests:
1. Paid Games – Where Rewards are given
2. Free Games – Where no rewards are given

In case of paid contest, the fee ranges between ₹30-60. Now the entire money gets pooled and at the end of the match, the money is distributed to the top rankers as per the undisclosed pre-decided norm.

The Catch

Users are tempted to win a huge amount by paying a small entry fee. This helps to get increased participation. Also, minimum withdrawal amount of ₹200 tends to get the users back to the platform. They at least keep trying until their account balance hits the minimum withdrawal limit.

How Does The Business Monnetize?
2 major revenue avenues:
1. Fantasy Sport: Out of the total pooled money received, Dream 11 keeps 15% of the amount as platform fee.
2. Advertisements: It showcases advertisements of various brands on its platform.

Dream11 In Numbers
The following infographic gives a numeric insight upon the Dream11 platform.

  • In April 2019, Dream11 became the first Indian gaming company to enter the “Unicorn Club”. 
  • In 2017, a case was registered against the company in an Indian High Court. The court, in its ruling, stated that playing the Dream11 game involves superior knowledge, judgement and attention. The Court also held that “the element of skill” had a predominant influence on the outcome of the Dream11 game. 
  • Dream11 is not available on the Google Play store for Android devices as Google does not allow apps that run cash contests. To participate in a Dream11 game, a user must be at least 18 years old and needs to get their profile verified using their PAN.