India added to its national security by signing a defence pact with Japan recently. In doing so, it added to its previous formidable agreements of similar nature which grant it a boost amidst recent border clashes with China.
Crux of the Matter
India-Japan Defence Pact
On 9 September, 2020, India and Japan signed a mutual defence pact named Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) to aid “smooth and prompt provision of supplies and services” between the 2 countries. The agreement allows access to each other’s military base as well as food, transportation, fuel, medical services, communications, repair and provision of equipment, and several other facilities. It also allows each country to evacuate its citizens from the other in emergency situations.
The pact covers situations like joint exercises, peacekeeping and relief operations as well as “disasters” in each other’s territory. India now has similar defence pacts with the ‘Quad’ – an informal strategic group of India, Japan, Australia, and the US reportedly formed to counter the increasing Chinese aggression. Let us also have a look some other such strategic military alliances.
India and the US signed a Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) in 2016. The agreement provides access to each other’s facilities and supplies like fuel, communication, medical aid, spare equipment, and repair services.
The pact covers overs activities like joint military exercises, humanitarian missions, etc, and is significant for India as it provides access to distant bases like Guam, Djibouti, Diego Garcia, etc.
India and France signed an agreement in 2018 which allows the use of each other’s military bases. The deal is significant for India as France has significant military bases in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
The agreement was among 14 others which included sharing of technology regarding nuclear energy and “protection of classified information”.
India and Australia signed the ‘Mutual Logistics Support’ in June 2020 which allows access to each other’s military bases. The pact allows refueling and maintenance services to each other at the bases.
The aim of the agreement was to increase “interoperability” between the 2 countries. It was signed amidst the conflict between Australia and China. As Australia initiated the demand for an independent inquiry into the Covid-19 origin at the World Health Assembly (WHA) meeting, China increased its duties on barley coming from Australia in retaliation.
India and Russia are expected to sign a “logistics” support pact in October-November 2020 during the ‘annual bilateral summit’ between the 2 countries.
Russia also affirmed its stance of not supplying arms to Pakistan on Indian request as reported by the Asian News International (ANI).
When it comes to the no defence/arms supply to Pakistan decision, it is based on the request and sensitivities of the Indian side.Roman Babushkin, Russian Deputy Chief of Mission in Delhi
- Shinto is a religion originating in Japan. Classified as an East Asian religion by scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan’s indigenous religion and as a natural religion. Scholars sometimes call its practitioners Shintoists.
- Radhabinod Pal was a Bengali jurist from India, who was a member of the United Nations’ International Law Commission. He was one of three Asian judges appointed to the “Tokyo Trials” of Japanese war crimes committed during the Second World War. Among all the judges of the tribunal, he was the only one who submitted a judgment which insisted all defendants were not guilty.
- Exercise Malabar is a trilateral naval exercise involving the United States, Japan and India as permanent partners. Originally begun in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the United States, Japan became a permanent partner in 2015.
- Hindustan Times – India, Japan sign key pact for reciprocal provision of supplies, services between defence forces
- Deccan Chronicle – India, Russia to ink defence logistics support pact
- The Hindu Business Line – India, France ink 14 agreements
- Firstpost – India, Australia sign seven agreements, decide to allow reciprocal access to military bases in Narendra Modi-Scott Morrison virtual summit
- ORF – Logistics pact with US: Why LEMOA is significant for India