Timeline Of India-Pakistan Conflicts

Timeline Of India-Pakistan Conflicts

As India and Pakistan recently announced to adhere to the ceasefire agreed in 2003 after a war, let’s look at the conflicts between the two nations since partition.

Crux of the Matter

Recent Ceasefire
India and Pakistan recently announced to follow ceasefire. The ceasefire, originally in 2003, was also brought after a war. With that in the background, now would be the right time to look at the two nations’ conflicts.

October 1947- 1st Kashmir War

  • 1st Indo-Pak war as Pakistani tribesmen invaded Kashmir.
  • Kashmir sought Indian aid and acceded to India.
  • 1 Jan 1949: LoC established after the ceasefire.

August 1965

  • Retaliation by India after Pakistan initiated ‘Operation Gibraltar’.
  • In the operation, Pakistani soldiers attempted to start an ‘insurgency’ in Kashmir by disguising themselves as local Kashmiris.
  • War ended in January 1966.

1971 – Bangladesh Formation

  • Early 1971: East Pakistan (Bangladesh) declared independence from West Pakistan.
  • As India announced support for East Pak, West Pak attacked Indian airbases.
  • India invaded West Pak and defeated it in 13 days. Also, East Pak is now officially Bangladesh.

Read Summachar coverage of India-Bangladesh ties: History Of India & Bangladesh

May 1999 – Kargil War

  • Pakistan occupied territories across LoC on the Indian side.
  • India launched airstrikes.
  • July 1999: India regained the occupied territories.

Read Summachar coverage of the Kargil War: 21st Kargil Vijay Diwas

February 2019 – Balakot

  • In a car bomb attack in Kashmir by Pakistan’s terrorist group Jaish-e- Mohammed, 40 Indian officers were killed.
  • 26 February: India launched air strikes on Jaish camps in Balakot, PoK.
  • Pakistan captured Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman as his jet was destroyed – returned to India after 60 hrs in captivity.
  • An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from the Latin arma, meaning “arms” and –stitium, meaning “a stopping”.
  • The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47, adopted on 21 April 1948, concerns the resolution of the Kashmir conflict. Both India and Pakistan raised objections to the Resolution. However, they welcomed mediation by the UN Commission.
  • During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial ceasefire on the Western Front as France, the United Kingdom, and Germany observed Christmas. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place throughout the week leading to Christmas, and that British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches.

Qatar World Cup Controversy Heats Up

Qatar World Cup Controversy Heats Up

With FIFA World Cup being only a year away, the focus on its hosts Qatar has once again intensified. A recent report has further increased protests over Qatar hosting the event due to its depiction of abysmal labour conditions in the nation. In that light, let’s look at the issues concerning Qatar hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

Crux of the Matter

Recent Report
As per a recent report of The Guardian, 6,500 migrant workers from India and other South Asian nations have died in Qatar since 2011. Notably, 2011 was also the year when Qatar won the hosting right for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

Upcoming Event

  • Large scale infrastructure work initiated in Qatar as the event comes up next year.
  • Fall from height, suffocation, etc. cited as the most common death causes for the labourers.
  • However, ‘natural’ causes like heart failure, etc cited as the most common cause – 69% of Indian, Bangladeshi and Nepali workers’ deaths cited as ‘natural’.

Intense heat and abysmal working conditions are reported as the factors in such natural deaths. As per reports, however, no autopsies are done in such cases.

Controversy Around Qatar World Cup
Qatar would be the 1st Arab and 1st Muslim majority nation to host a World Cup. However, controversy and protests occurred right after it was awarded the 2022 World Cup due to its human rights track.

Reasons Qatar’s hosting of World Cup has been criticized:

  • Workers are not paid a salary on time.
  • Kafala system – strict control of employers on workers with non-existent labour rights.
  • Workers trapped with passports often being held back by the employers.
  • The concept of male guardianship prevalent – women need male accompaniment for several fundamental activities.
  • Homosexuality is punishable with imprisonment.
  • Alcohol ban – led to questions of conflict for fans coming from non-Islamic nations.
  • Widespread allegations of corruption in awarding Qatar the event – former UEFA President Michel Platini was arrested in 2019 over alleged corruption for the mentioned.
  • Qatar has been accused of supporting terrorism. It reportedly supports ‘Hamas’ – group with an aim to destroy Israel.

2018 FIFA World Cup hosted by Russia was criticized similarly due to its poor rights record, especially towards Putin critics.

  • Qatar in July 2020 announced that it would also like to stage the Olympics, possibly in 2032. The Olympics have never been hosted in the Middle East, and Qatar will also be the first nation in the region to host the FIFA world cup.
  • The Qatar Stars League also known as Qatar Premier League (QPL), is the highest professional league in Qatari football, with the next tier being the Qatargas League. The league’s first season was played in 1963, although the first official season occurred in 1972.
  • Qatar is a World Bank high-income economy, backed by the world’s third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita of US$12,536 or more in 2019.

Delhi HC Notice To Rahul And Sonia Gandhi In National Herald Case

Delhi HC Notice To Rahul And Sonia Gandhi In National Herald Case

As Delhi HC has sought response from Congress leaders Rahul Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi in the National Herald case, let’s take a look at how an alleged scam occurred in a newspaper established before partition.

Crux of the Matter

Response Sought
Delhi HC has asked for response from Rahul Gandhi and Congress President Sonia Gandhi in the National Herald case. The response has also been sought from

  • Congress GS Oscar Fernandes.
  • Sam Pitroda.
  • Suman Dubey.
  • Young India (YI).

The order from the HC came after a private complaint filed by BJP MP Subramanian Swamy. Further hearings for the case have been stayed till 12 April.

What Is National Herald?

  • Newspaper launched by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1938.
  • It was published by Associated Journals (AJL) – also founded by Nehru.
  • 5000 other freedom fighters were also AJL stakeholders although that number dropped to 1,000 as of 2010.

What Is The Controversy?

  • NH was closed in 2008 – had ₹90 crore debt then.
  • AJL was provided ₹90 crore loan by Congress to help it survive.
  • Young India Ltd (YIL) was formed in 2010 of which Rahul and Sonia Gandhi held 76% of shares.
  • YIL also had Indian Overseas Congress chairman Sam Pitroda as one of directors.
  • In 2010 only, YIL took over AJL. Thus, YIL also became the owner of the ₹90 crore debt AJL originally owed to Congress.

As the AJL also failed to repay the loan, all of its equity was transferred to YIL. YIL now thus acquired AJL. In return, YIL paid ₹50 lakh for acquiring the equity.

Swamy’s Complaint

  • 2012: Subramanian Swamy filed complaint for fraud in Court.
  • Swamy called the loan to AJL ‘illegal’ as the law reportedly does not allow a political party to provide loans.
  • He also claimed that Congress, through YIL, illegally gained assets of AJL worth ₹2,000 crores by just paying ₹50 lakh.

It appears that YIL was in fact created as a sham or a cloak to convert public money to personal use.

Metropolitan magistrate Gomati Manocha claimed in 2014

Court has also noted that other AJL shareholders were not involved in any decisions.

Read more about the Harshad Mehta scam here.

  • The paper carried on its masthead the words ‘Freedom is in Peril, Defend it with All Your Might‘ taken from a cartoon by Gabriel from Brentford, Middlesex that Indira Gandhi had forwarded to Nehru. In 1938, K. Rama Rao was appointed the paper’s first editor.
  • The Discovery of India was written by India’s first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru during his imprisonment in 1942–1945 at Ahmednagar fort in present day Indian state of Maharashtra by the colonial authorities during the British Raj before the independence of India. The book was written in 1944 but published in 1946. 
  • In 1955, Nehru was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour. President Rajendra Prasad awarded him the honour without taking advice from the Prime Minister as would be the normal constitutional procedure.

Malcolm X Murder To Be Reinvestigated?

Malcolm X Murder To Be Reinvestigated?

With the discovery of new evidence, the family of renowned activist Malcolm X have has demanded a further investigation in the case of his murder while also alleging the role of the FBI in it. With that, let’s look at who was Malcolm X and how the mystery of his assassination continues to be shrouded in doubt.

Crux of the Matter

Calls For Reinvestigation
Daughters of Malcolm X have demanded a new investigation in his murder case amidst new evidence. They have also alleged that NYPD and the FBI were involved in the murder.

New Evidence

  • The new evidence found is the deathbed letter of Raymond Wood, a former NYPD officer.
  • Wood wrote that he was assigned the responsibility to arrest Malcolm’s security team days before his murder.

Netflix had released Who Killed Malcolm X? series in 2020. The series led to a review of the convictions of the case, although the review is still going.

Who Was Malcolm X?

  • Born: 19 May 1925 in Nebraska.
  • Renowned activist for Black civil rights and a key member of ‘Nation of Islam’.
    Nation for Islam: Movement for Black civil rights having Islamic elements.
  • Reportedly faced attacks from KKK in childhood – influenced his future activism.
  • Imprisoned from 1946 to 1952 for larceny – joined Nation for Islam in that period.

His Rise

  • Malcolm became the National Representative of the group after his prison term.
  • Increased its influence rapidly amidst the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s.
  • This was also the time when renowned boxer Muhammad Ali converted to Islam.
  • Malcolm X was against ‘mainstream’ movements like Martin Luther King Jr. who preached nonviolence.
  • He was more radical in his criticism of racism and American society.
  • However, he left the ‘Nation’ in 1964 over his radicalism and differences.


  • He was assassinated on 21 February 1965 while delivering a lecture in Harlem.
  • 3 Nationmembers were convicted.
  • However, several reports claim that 2 of them were innocent, and that FBI was the real planner of the murder.
  • In January 2019, members of the families of Malcolm X, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy were among dozens of Americans who signed a public statement calling for a truth and reconciliation commission to persuade Congress or the Justice Department to review the assassinations of all four leaders during the 1960s.
  • A truth commission is an official body tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government, in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past. An earlier and perhaps the first such commission occurred in Uganda in 1974 and was known as the Truth Commission: Commission of Inquiry into the Disappearances of People in Uganda since 25 January 1971.
  • In 1963, Malcolm X began a collaboration with journalist Alex Haley on his life story, The Autobiography of Malcolm X. He told Haley, “If I’m alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle.” Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination.

Germany Witnesses Farmers’ Protests Again

Germany Witnesses Farmers' Protests Again

As German cabinet recently passed legislation to amend laws regarding farming, protests, occurring in its anticipation, were increased in magnitude. Let’s take a look at what the legislation is, and how it has been received there.

Crux of the Matter

Germany recently passed farm laws which have drawn protest from the farmers across the nation. Several states have witnessed tractor rallies.


  • The legislation would reduce the use of glyphosate herbicide, and stop its use completely 2024 onwards.
  • It also restricts the use of fertilizers and insecticides.

The law has been brought to check Germany’s insect population decrease. It has reduced drastically due to excessive use of pesticide. Insects are considered vital for ecological balance.

Major Reaction
The protest are lead by ‘Land schafft Verbindung’ (LsV) (Country Creates Connection) movement, which claims that the laws were passed without consulting the farmers. LsV claims that the restrictions would inflate costs, which would increase food imports and harm the local farmers. They also claim that food import causes more carbon emission and may not qualify German food standards.

  • Farmers have demanded to repeal the legislation and analyse the impact of other infrastructure on insect population instead.
  • Opposition groups like the Green party have claimed that insect population reduction is caused more by ‘industrial-scale farming’.
  • The Left party has blamed ‘market inequality’ for the crisis, blaming monopoly of large corporations which “prohibit fair prices and render ecological solutions infeasible.”