How Did Lijjat Papad Set The Women Empowerment Ball Rolling?

How Did Lijjat Papad Set The Women Empowerment Ball Rolling?

Provides economic opportunities through domestic activity, makes extraordinary leaders out of Indian women, empowers women by providing them with a respectful income source – this is what Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad has been practicing since its inception in 1959. Let us have a look at the journey of Lijjat Papad.

Crux of the Matter

The Humble Beginnings
Seven Gujarati women with an aim of a creating a sustainable livelihood for their families started the venture of making Papads. They borrowed ₹ 80 from Chhaganbhai Patel (also called Chhagan Bapa), a noted social worker and philanthropist, who later guided the Lijjat Empire too.

The seven women are Jaswantiben Popat, Banuben Tanna, Jayaben Vithalani, Laguben Gokani, Parvatiben Thodani, Ujamben Kundalia, and Diwaliben Lukka.

The System of Co Owners
Lijjat Papad eventually expanded as a cooperative society. Well, the membership was restricted only for women, a policy that stands to date. Men in the cooperative are salaried employees majorly in the roles of accountants, drivers or security guards. Simply put, men are not members/owners in the cooperative society.

A Typical Day Of Lijjat Sisters

1. The working kick starts early in the morning when a group of women start kneading lentil (urad) dough.
2. Another group of women arrive with finished goods which is then tested for quality at the branch laboratory.
3. The second group of women then pick up freshly prepared lentil dough to prepare dry papads at home.

How It Empowers Women
To be a part of Lijjat Group, the only condition is that each women has to abide by the quality norms. Lijjat has welcomed the ‘Work from Home’ methodology long before it was accepted as a working medium in corporate world. The reason was quite straight which was to enable a homemaker to balance her family while earning an alternate income source.

The Glorifying Growth
The business which began with 7 women making 4 packets of papads on their building’s terrace now employs 45000 women across 82 Indian branches with presence in 15 nations. Lijjat Papad’s journey from seed capital of ₹80 in 1959 to ₹800 crore turnover in 2018 is overwhelming to say the least.

Perks Of Being A Lijjat Member

  • Women have the freedom to choose their work area.
  • Members can become a part of managing committee if selected in elections.
  • Seniority in the cooperative society doesn’t matter. Work responsibilities and work output makes the difference.
  • Women can apply for educational loans and scholarships for their children.

The Uncompromising Attitude on Quality

  • In 2002, the “Businesswoman of the Year” award was given to “The Women Behind Lijjat Papad” at The Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence. Lijjat received the “Best Village Industries Institution” award from KVIC for the period 1998–99 to 2000–01.
  • Lijjat believes in the philosophy of sarvodaya and collective ownership. Sarvodaya is a Sanskrit term meaning ‘universal uplift’ or ‘progress of all’. The term was used by Mahatma Gandhi as the title of his 1908 translation of John Ruskin’s tract on political economy, Unto This Last, and Gandhi came to use the term for the ideal of his own political philosophy.
  • Lijjat Patrika, the in-house magazine, is published and circulated for a nominal rate to those interested in the activities of Lijjat. It has emerged as a strong mode of communication for information related to significant events and initiatives at Lijjat, in addition to presenting articles on women.

Understanding Uniform Civil Code Of India

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) recently came into limelight after Chief Justice of India S A Bobde talked about it. In response to this, let us know more about UCC and the current status of it in the country.

Uniform Civil Code (UCC) recently came into limelight after Chief Justice of India S A Bobde talked about it. In response to this, let us know more about UCC and the current status of it in the country.

Crux of the Matter

What Is UCC?
The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) comes under Article 44 of the Constitution of India. According to UCC, there should only be one law in India, for matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and adoption and this should be applicable to all religious communities.

Article 44

  • Part IV of Article 44 states: “The state shall endeavour to secure the citizen a Uniform Civil Code throughout the territory of India”.
  • Article 44 corresponds with the Directive Principles of State Policy
  • While drafting the Constitution, B R Ambedkar wanted to implement UCC but due to lack of awareness amongst people and objection from religious groups, it was made volutary and included this is Article 44.

    Article 37 of the Constitution says that although there should be Uniform Civil Code in the country, its implementation is not mandatory.

Uniform Civil Code In Goa

  • However, Goa is the only Indian state that has a Uniform Civil Code but it is known as the common family law.
  • The code was introduced in the 19th century by the Portuguese as the Portuguese Civil Code.
  • Hence, in Goa, irrespective of the religion, everyone is bound by a common law related to marriage, succession, divorce.

Current Status Of UCC

  • The demand for UCC became a part of BJP’s election manifesto in 1998.
  • Bill to implement it across India was proposed in 2019 and 2020 but was not introduced in the parliament.
  • In March 2021, The Supreme Court asked for a reply from the central government on the need for gender and religion neutral inheritance and succession laws which comes under Unifrom Civil Code.

CJI Bobde’s Comment On Goa’s Uniform Civil Code
Outgoing Chief Justice of India (CJI), S A Bobde applauding the Uniform Civil Code of Goa said:

“Goa has what Constitution framers envisaged for India- a Uniform Civil Code. And I have had the great privilege of administering justice under that Code. It applies in marriage and succession, governing all Goans irrespective of religious affiliations.”

  • For maintaining law and order and communal harmony, British didn’t interfere with religious customs in the country. So Uniform Civil Code was never implemented. But Goa was a part of Portuguese India, so it has UCC.
  • The Islamic religious laws taken from the Quran and Hadith is called Sharia Law.
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954, was implemented for anyone who wanted to have their marriage outside the realm of any specific religious personal law. The first such Act was the Act III of 1872, introduced by British jurist Henry Sumner Maine.

The Success Formula Of Dream11

The Success Formula Of Dream11

With another IPL season kicking off, India’s very successful and first ever fantasy gaming startup Dream11 is back in news. Started by two young professionals for their love towards football, the startup has seen its dry days before turning into a unicorn. But wish to explore how it works? Read on.

Crux of the Matter

Back Story
Harsh Jain and Bhavith Sheth founded Dream11, a sports fantasy platform in 2008. The platform currently offers users to play fantasy cricket, hockey, football, kabaddi, and basketball. Until 2012, Dream11 worked under an ad-based model – it earned revenue through posting advertisements on its platform.

But What Is Fantasy Cricket?
Let’s say a user creates a team of 11 players out of the total squad available for an upcoming match. User gets points based on the performance of their players in the ongoing (real) game. Points are allotted as per runs scored, runs chased, wickets taken, throws, fielding, etc. At the end of the match, each user gets a rank as per the aggregate points scored.

Business Model Of Fantasy Sport
There are 2 types of contests:
1. Paid Games – Where Rewards are given
2. Free Games – Where no rewards are given

In case of paid contest, the fee ranges between ₹30-60. Now the entire money gets pooled and at the end of the match, the money is distributed to the top rankers as per the undisclosed pre-decided norm.

The Catch

Users are tempted to win a huge amount by paying a small entry fee. This helps to get increased participation. Also, minimum withdrawal amount of ₹200 tends to get the users back to the platform. They at least keep trying until their account balance hits the minimum withdrawal limit.

How Does The Business Monnetize?
2 major revenue avenues:
1. Fantasy Sport: Out of the total pooled money received, Dream 11 keeps 15% of the amount as platform fee.
2. Advertisements: It showcases advertisements of various brands on its platform.

Dream11 In Numbers
The following infographic gives a numeric insight upon the Dream11 platform.

  • In April 2019, Dream11 became the first Indian gaming company to enter the “Unicorn Club”. 
  • In 2017, a case was registered against the company in an Indian High Court. The court, in its ruling, stated that playing the Dream11 game involves superior knowledge, judgement and attention. The Court also held that “the element of skill” had a predominant influence on the outcome of the Dream11 game. 
  • Dream11 is not available on the Google Play store for Android devices as Google does not allow apps that run cash contests. To participate in a Dream11 game, a user must be at least 18 years old and needs to get their profile verified using their PAN. 

Trivia Thursday: 7 Wonders Of The World

As the World Monument Day is almost here (18th April), let us all take a look at the 7 modern wonders of the world on this week's Trivia Thursday.

Alright, we know you know that Taj Mahal is one of the 7 wonders of the world. But can you name the other six?

How many did you know? Not many? Don’t worry, we got you covered. As the World Monument Day is almost here (18th April), let us all take a look at the 7 modern wonders of the world on this week’s Trivia Thursday. Which one is your absolute favourite? Let us know in the comments!

Crux of the Matter

In this week’s Trivia Thursday, let us know about the Seven Wonders of the World!

1. Great Wall of China
Built and re-built over centuries, the Great Wall of China is an array of bulwarks constructed across the northern region of China. They were built for protection against various Eurasian nomadic groups.

2. Taj Mahal
Created with ivory-white marble, Taj Mahal is the mausoleum of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan’s wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is situated on the southern bank of the river Yamuna in Agra, India.

3. Colosseum
Built in around 70D, the Colosseum is the largest ancient Amphitheatre ever built.  The oval-shaped Amphitheatre is located in the centre of the Rome, Italy.

4. Chichen Itza
Chichén Itzá was an ancient city complex built by Maya people around 600 AD. Located in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, its primary attraction is El Castillo or Temple of Kukulcan, a massive step pyramid.

5. Christ The Redeemer
The Catholic Circle of Rio made a proposal for a landmark statue in 1920. The group organized an event called Semana do Monumento (“Monument Week”) to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The organization was motivated by what they perceived as ‘Godlessness’ in the society. Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931 and cost the equivalent of US$250,000 (equivalent to $3,600,000 in 2019).

6. Machu Picchu
Located in Peru, it is a 15th-century Inca citadel. In the Quechua language, machu means “old” or “old person”, while pikchu means “pyramid, pointed multi-sided solid; cone”. Thus the name of the site is sometimes interpreted as “old mountain”.

7. Petra
A historic and archaeological city in southern Jordan, Petra flourished in the 1st century AD, when its population peaked at an estimated 20,000 inhabitants. It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described Petra as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”.

8. Great Pyramid Of Giza (Honorary Status)
The Great Pyramid of Giza, largest and oldest of the three pyramids at the Giza Necropolis in Egypt was granted honorary status by the New 7 Wonders Foundation. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years. It was also a part of the Ancient Wonders of the World.

Take a look at our last week’s Trivia Thursday here: Trivia Thursday: Fun Facts on IPL

How Do Creators Generate Income From YouTube?

How Do Creators Generate Income From YouTube?

We all love watching our favourite creators on YouTube. But have you ever wondered how do they capitalise on the views and likes and number of subscribers? Let’s have a look at different streams from which a YouTuber can earn.

Who knows, you might even start your new YouTube channel after this!

Crux of the Matter

Type Of Audience
The audience of any creator can be bifurcated into 3 different categories:
1. Casual Viewers: They form majority of the total audience. They are aware about the creator but don’t follow them religiously.
2. Active Viewers (Fans): They form a good chunk which regularly follows and engages with the creator on different platforms.
3. SuperFans: They are very niche but highly monetizable as they are willing to go an extra mile to interact with the personality.

Earning Avenues
The avenues are divided into majorly 2 parts:
a. Business to Business – This is further divided into Adsense and Brand Deals
b. Business to Consumer: This is further divided into Merchandise and Paid Content

Ad Sense
By this medium, YouTube sells ads through creators’ video
For such slip in ads, YouTube pays creators close to 50% of revenue generated. YouTube also tends to surface creators video more often, leading to exponential rise in views.

AD SENSE US v/s India Pay Comparison: In US, for every 1000 views, a YouTuber on an average earns $5.3. The same figure for India stands at $0.25.

Brand Deal
Various business houses/brands collaborate with creators in order to promote their products or services. This medium is a source of generating a sustainable income for creators as they can indulge into year long partnerships.

When creators grow a substantial audience with good concentration of Active viewers and Superfans, introducing one’s own merch is a good business model. It helps in creating a closer community besides not limiting the income stream to content creation or brand deals.

The most common method of merchandising is introducing a line of apparels. Although in the past couple of years, merchandising has evolved significantly. Some of the examples are: Mr. Beast Burger by Mr. Beast, Dispo (photo sharing app) by David Dobrik, Chamberlain coffee by Emma Chamberlain, Latercase by UnboxTherapy.

Paid Content
Paid Content is a content behind a paywall and can only be unlocked by paying for it. Again, it is only feasible when a creator has a decent number of active viewers and superfans. Categories of paid Content are:
a. Online courses: Exercised by creators generating knowledge through their content. If a course is worth ₹1,000 and 100 people opt for it, a creator can generate ₹1,00,000.
b. Monthly subscription to Exclusive Clubs: Audience can join various membership clubs for as little as ₹29/month and get access to exclusive content, and have better reachability with the creator.

  • Ryan’s World is a children’s YouTube channel featuring Ryan Kaji, a 9 year old, along with his mother. According to Forbes, Kaji was listed as the highest paid youtuber for the year 2018 and 2019, earning $22 million and $26 million respectively from his videos and product line. 
  • On October 9, 2006, Google announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.
  • Susan Wojcicki is the CEO of YouTube. Wojcicki was involved in the founding of Google, and became Google’s first marketing manager in 1999. She proposed the acquisition of YouTube by Google in 2006, and has served as the CEO since 2014.