Pakistan 2nd Biggest Digital Audience Of DD And All India Radio

Pakistan 2nd Biggest Digital Audience Of DD And All India Radio

With India’s neighbour Pakistan featuring in the top digital audience of DD and All India Radio of Prasar Bharati, let us look at some stats revealed by the latter as well as one notable incident regarding India, Balochistan, Pakistan and All India Radio.

Crux of the Matter

Before We Start
Prasar Bharati is the statutory autonomous body functioning as India’s Public Service Broadcaster. It consists of All India Radio (AIR) and Doordarshan (DD).

100% Digital Growth

  • Digital channels of Prasar Bharati registered more than 100% growth in 2020.
  • Prasar Bharati app (NewsOnAir) added more than 2.5 million users in 2020 as well as received more than 300 million views.
  • Channels across Doordarshan and Akashvani received more than 1 billion digital views.
  • Most popular digital videos included Prime Minister’s interactions with school students, Republic Day parade 2020 and a rare video of mathematician Shakuntala Devi from DD National archives.

Audience From The Neighbourhood

  • Pakistan was the 2nd largest “digital audience” for DD and AIR content after people inside India.
  • The US was the 3rd largest digital audience.
  • One notable incident of AIR also associated with Pakistan and its annexation of Balochistan.

Balochistan In 1947

  • As per the Foreign Policy Centre of the UK, most of Balochistan was known as Kalat before 1947.
  • Remained independent for 7 months after Indian independence and partition in 1947.

Infamous Menon Declaration

  • 27 March 1948: V P Menon, Secretary in Ministry of States, made a statement on All India Radio.
  • Menon claimed that Kalat “was pressing” to join India but the latter rejected it.

2 versions exist:

  • King of Kalat had never discussed joining India and was in touch with both India and Pakistan to prevent invasion from the latter.
  • Kalat wanted independence but asked to join India amidst Pakistani threat, which India rejected.

Damage Done

  • Either way, the damage was done.
  • Sardar Patel immediately denied that any such request was put, and so did PM Nehru.
  • However, it proved a bit too late, as the AIR broadcast was heard by King of Kalat and also reported by Pakistani Government.
  • In less than a week, Pakistani Army annexed Kalat and captured the King.

Balochistan has since been a part of Pakistan. However, both share a strained relationship due to reported violent suppression by the latter continuing even today.

  • The Prasar Bharati Act provides for the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation, to be known as Prasar Bharati, and define its composition, functions, and powers. The Act received the assent of the President of India on 12 September 1990 after being unanimously passed by Parliament. It was finally implemented in November 1997.
  • Akashvani is a Sanskrit word meaning ‘celestial announcement‘ or ‘voice from the sky/heaven‘. ‘Akashvani’ was first used in the context of radio by M. V. Gopalaswami in 1936 after setting up India’s first private radio station in his residence; Akashvani was later adopted as All India Radio’s on-air name in 1957; given its literal meaning in Sanskrit, it was believed to be a more than a suitable name for a broadcaster.
  • Krishi Darshan debuted on Doordarshan on 26 January 1967 and is Indian television’s longest-running program. In 2015, it was shifted from DD National and airs on DD Kisan, but also airs on the former channel.

Makar Sankranti Cockfighting Tradition In Andhra

Makar Sankranti Cockfighting Tradition In Andhra

With Andhra Pradesh police increasing its patrol near Makar Sankranti, let us look at the tradition of cockfighting in the state, what occurs differently there, and the legends associated with it.

Crux of the Matter

Recent News
Andhra Pradesh police recently seized 482 knives. These knives are tied to cocks’ feet in cockfighting popular in the state.

Cockfight is a “blood sport” between two roosters (cocks). The fight goes on till one of them dies or gets critically injured.

Kodi Pandalu In Andhra
The 3-days Sankranti period is celebrated by cockfighting in Andhra Pradesh known as Kodi Pandalu. It has been famously called “illegal Super Bowl’” of India by The Washington Post.

Cockfighting is illegal in India, yet mass attendances are recorded in Andhra, with people from all over India as well as NRIs visiting. It is also attended and funded reportedly by politicians across all political spectrum.

Makar Sankranti

  • Makar Sankranti – the first day of the sun transitioning into the sun sign Capricorn (Makara).
  • Also celebrated as harvest festival – kites flown in several Indian states.


  • Birds are trained for weeks.
  • Large bets are placed on roosters in the event.
  • Knife tied to roosters’ leg – renders fight more vicious.
  • Losing rooster traditionally taken by the winner’s owner for consumption.
  • Cockfighting betting said to generate ₹2000 crore transaction (2019).
  • Enormous arenas are built for the event – but also done in fields if required.

Guiding Text

  • Kukkuta Sastra is a text widely claimed to be followed for cockfighting.
  • It reportedly guides regarding astrology of betting, nurturing and classification of chickens, horoscope of chicken etc. for a favourable result in the fight.

Associated Legend
Cockfighting was reportedly popularized in the state by the ‘battle of Palnadu’ (between 1178 and 1182 AD) between King Nalagamaraju and his stepbrother Malidevaraju.

2 accounts of the battle are reported:

  • Malidevaraju was sent to exile after losing in cockfighting to the King (similar to the dice game in Mahabharata). This sparked the animosity which ended in the war
  • The other account is that cockfighting was the ‘decider’ of the battle between the two.
  • The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL). Since 2004, the game has been played on the first Sunday in February. The Super Bowl is the second-largest day for US food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has frequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year.
  • A blood sport is a category of sport or entertainment that involves bloodshed. Activities characterized as blood sports but involving only human participants, including the Ancient Roman gladiatorial games.
  • Cockfighting is an ancient spectator sport. There is evidence that cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-Daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city’s ancient name could have been Kukkutarma (“the city of the cockerel [kukkuta]”).

Dissecting CRED’s Business Model

Dissecting Business Model of CRED

Think of IPL 2020 and think of CRED! We were literally bombarded by this company’s advertisements throughout the series. Curious to understand its business operations? Well, let’s find out.

Crux of the Matter

What is Cred Into?
Founded by Kunal Shah (also a co-founder of FreeCharge) in 2018, CRED is a Bangalore based fintech startup offering rewards to its customers who pay their credit card bills using its platform. It came to the maximum light by becoming the official partner of the 2020 IPL season.

Business Model

  • Step 1: To use CRED’s platform, an individual has to give access to his/ her credit information to the company.
  • Step 2: Cred processes the information provided through a credit rating agency CIBIL. An individual with a minimum of 750 credit score is availed with its membership.
  • Step 3: Uses AI-backed systems & statistics to keep track of an individual’s entire credit card payment journey.
  • Step 4Rewards users for making Credit Card bill payments through its platform.

How Does It Earn?

  • For the early phase, CRED’s focus was on achieving scale rather than opting for revenue generation.
  • They deliberately wished to expand their cream customer base in the first leg of their operations.
  • Resultantly, in the year 2019, their expenses stood at ₹64 crores with absolutely zero revenue.

Avenues For Revenues

Product & Offer Listing Fees:

  • CRED has partnered with various businesses whose product offerings would be listed on its application. 
  • Whenever a member opts for redeeming the CRED coins from the app, the business pays fees to CRED for directing customers to them.

Data Monetization:
CRED members are usually prone to be the affluent ones. With such niche data collection, CRED can easily monetise data by availing them to various financial institutions.

Launching Lending Products:
(A) Rent Pay:

  • To pay recurring household expenses & monthly rent payments.
  • CRED would charge a fee from its members who opt for this service.

(B) Credit Line:

  • Offered to the customers in association with banks and other institutions with interest at 1/3rd the market rate.
  • CRED will get a revenue share from the credit line offering.

CRED In News
CRED recently raised $81 million in its Series C funding round and bought shares worth $1.2 million from its employees. Employees holding shares in CRED were able to sell up to 50% of their ESOP’s (Employee Stock Ownership Programme)in the funding round.

  • Stock options are also used as golden handcuffs if their value has increased drastically. Golden handcuffs, a phrase first recorded in 1976, refers to financial allurements and benefits that have the objective to encourage highly compensated employees to remain within a company or organization instead of moving from company to company.
  • CRED’s ads starring iconic celebrities from the 90s during the IPL 2020 made the startup trending on Twitter during its campaign. The company has registered six to seven times increase in daily sign-ups after the company released its IPL campaign. Shailendra J Singh, Managing Director at Sequoia Capital, who is the investment advisor with the payment app, tweeted about the feat.
  • On 8 April 2015, Snapdeal acquired Freecharge, in one of the biggest take over in the Indian e-commerce sector so far. The deal was for approximately $400 million as cash and stock. On 27 July 2017, Axis Bank acquired Freecharge for $60 million.

Should We Worry About The Bird Flu In India?

Should We Worry About The Bird Flu In India?

As cases of poultry deaths were reported as increasing in 4 states in India, social media has been rife with an increased hype about the dangers of the bird flu. Let’s see if it can be deadly for us, its origins, and the measures being taken to control this flu.

Crux of the Matter

Whom Can It Infect?
Avian influenza or Bird Flu is a viral infection that can infect wild birds and domestic poultry. It is a rare occurrence but it can subsequently infect humans, wherein it passes from one person to another. H5N1 is its most common form.

Whom Can It Affect?
Avian or Bird Flu, is a viral infection that can infect wild birds, domestic poultry, and even though it’s rare, humans too.

What Can Be The Mortality Rate?
60% for H5N1 i.e 6 out of 10 deaths in humans. Moreover, flu viruses are prone to mutation as they have a segmented genome and can eventually cause a pandemic.

More Ways Of Transmission

  • Direct Contact: Touching your eyes, nose, or mouth after direct contact with infected poultry can transmit the virus (most common).
  • Contaminated Surfaces: Infection can occur without touching poultry. Touching your eyes, nose, and mouth after touching contaminated surfaces can also transmit the disease.
  • Healthy looking birds can still spread bird flu.

What Is Culling?
It is the reduction of an animal population by selective slaughter. Eg: In Tasmania and South Australia, Cape Barren geese are ‘culled’ to limit damage to crops.

There is nothing to worry. All possible help is being given and states have been alerted. Cook the meat and eggs completely before eating.

Giriraj Singh, Union minister for Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and Dairying

What Is The Plan Of Action?
As per a press release by Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Husbandry, directions have been given to carry out culling in sick birds, according to the Govt. 2015 National Avian Influenza Plan.

So What’s More?
For neighbouring states, the advisory recommends vigilance towards any “unusual mortality amongst birds and to report it immediately”. As for personal safety, it includes disinfecting surfaces, wearing of protective gear and use of antiviral drugs.

  • Halal is an Arabic word that translates to “permissible or lawful” into English. In the Quran, the word halal is contrasted with haram (forbidden). The term halal is particularly associated with Islamic dietary laws and especially meat processed and prepared in accordance with those requirements.
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of the recorded history of avian influenza was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds.
  • Virulent Newcastle disease (VND) is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species; it is transmissible to humans. Though it can infect humans, most cases are non-symptomatic; rarely it can cause a mild fever and/or conjunctivitis in humans.

Nifty Financial Services Index Introduced In Futures & Options

Nifty Financial Services Index Introduced In Futures & Options

Nifty Financial Services, heavier weight than Bank Nifty, will now be traded in the Derivatives segment. In our previous story, we cleared the basics of Derivatives, including Futures and Options. If you missed it or want a recap, you can read it here. Well, now let’s delve deeper into the new financial product – Nifty Financial Services Index Futures & Options.

Crux of the Matter

Nifty Financial Services F&O
Launched on September 7, 2011, Nifty financial services is the index to record and reflect the behaviour of the Indian financial services companies which include banks, insurance companies, financial institutions, housing finance and other financial services companies.

  • This index has 20 constituents – all of them are listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE). We can say that the underlying assets (securities) for this derivative product will be these 20 stocks.
  • The Nifty Financial Services (NFS) Index will be traded on Futures and Options from 11th January 2021.
  • The contract lot size will be 40, meaning 1 NFS derivative will have 40 contracts.
  • The beta (sensitivity of the stock to the movement in the Nifty or the stock market) will be 1.20 to 1.25, meaning a 100 point movement in Nifty may lead to 125 point movement in NFS F&O.
  • The Index will be a more powerful indicator than Nifty Bank index since it has a few other important non-banking financial companies.

The total free-float market capitalization of the Nifty Financial Services index is 25.11 lakh crores as compared to 17.44 lakh crores of Nifty Bank. (Free-Float Market Cap = Total Shareholding – Promoters’ Holdings).

Looking forward to the mega-IPO plan of LIC by the Government, the plan of making the Nifty Financial Services Index traded in Futures and Options seems reasonable and inevitable since LIC will be added to this index in future post its IPO.

Summachar brings you this story in collaboration with Finmedium that can be found on Instagram at @finmedium and on the web here.

  • In finance, being short in an asset means investing in such a way that the investor will profit if the value of the asset falls. This is the opposite of a more conventional “long” position, where the investor will profit if the value of the asset rises.
  • A corporate promoter is a firm or person who does the preliminary work incidental to the formation of a company, including its promotion, incorporation, and flotation, and solicits people to invest money in the company, usually when it is being formed. An investment banker, an underwriter, or a stock promoter may, wholly or in part, perform the role of a promoter.
  • A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one or more other parties (person or group of persons). Typically, a fiduciary prudently takes care of money or other assets for another person.