Timeline Of Events As They Happened Between Israel-Palestine

Timeline Of Events As They Happened Between Israel-Palestine

In its worst escalation in years, the conflict between Israel and Palestine has caused severe damage, with most casualties coming through air strikes. In that light, let’s quickly go through the events of the recent conflict, which, as per UN warning, could escalate into a “full-scale war”.

Crux of the Matter


  • April 2021: Protests began at the Al-Aqsa Mosque over Israeli plan to evict Palestinians from East Jerusalem.
  • 7th May: The protests became violent as Palestinians reportedly attacked Israeli police with stones, fireworks, etc. Israeli police retaliated with force, injuring 200+ Palestinians.
  • 8th and 9th May: The violent clashes between Palestinian protesters and Israeli police continued.
  • 10th May: After threat by Hamas, a fundamentalist group demanding Islamist Palestinian state, 200 rockets were fired on Israel by them.
  • 12th May: Israel has claimed that over 1,050 rockets have been fired on it from Gaza strip.
    In the strikes on Israel, an Indian woman named Soumya Santosh was among the people killed.
  • 12th May: Israel retaliated with air strikes. The death count from those air strikes stands at 43 as of 12th May, with the fight between the two groups continuing so far.

Read brief history of Israel-Palestine conflict by Summachar: Palestine Removed From Google Maps?
Read Summachar coverage of India-Israel relations: Israel Envoy Praises India’s Farm Bills

Australia, NZ And The Oceanic Equation With China

Australia, NZ And The Oceanic Equation With China

China recently cancelled its economic dialogue with Australia amidst continuous conflict since the pandemic started. Meanwhile, New Zealand, Australia’s Oceanic neighbour, who normally has a different stance on China, recently recognized China’s Uighur rights violation though with a caveat. In that light, let’s look at the equation between the three and how they respond to China differently.

Crux of the Matter

What Happened Recently
China indefinitely halted ‘China-Australia Strategic Economic Dialogue’. It was done just after Australia cancelled Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) project between its state Victoria and China.

Across In New Zealand
NZ officially recognized human rights abuse of Uighurs in Xinjiang of China. However, it didn’t recongize it as ‘genocide’ on demand of PM Jacinda Ardern’s party. Still, the move alleviated widespread accusation of NZ ignoring China’s violations.

A Tale Of Two Countries
Oceanic nations Australia and New Zealand have widely differed in response to China. Generally, the former has more aggressive policy.

Australian Policy

  • Australia was among the 1st to ban Huawei and ZTE 5G of China in 2018 over ‘security issues’.
  • It was also among the nations not working with China’s Belt and Road Initiative and had in fact cancelled the one between its state Victoria and China.
  • The big ‘dent’ came in 2020, when Australia called for independent investigation into Coronavirus origin.
  • In turn, China, Australia’s biggest trade partner, imposed heavy sanctions on its exports like 80% on Barley, 200% on wine etc.
  • Chinese investment in Australia also decreased by 61%.

New Zealand

  • Analysts claim NZ is more pro-China in policies than Australia.
  • New Zeland was the 1st developed nation to sign ‘Free Trade Agreement’ with China in 2008.
  • Notably, NZ was the 1st ‘Five Eyes’ group country to join China’s BRI.
  • The country also refused joint condemnation of Uighur conditions with Five Eyes group.

Five Eyes is an intelligence sharing group formed in WW2. The countries members if this group are Australia, Canada, NZ, UK and US.


  • Australia and NZ have China as their biggest trade partner which leads to constraint on level of antagonism they can afford with China.
  • Both, although recognizing ‘rights violation’, refuse to recognize treatment of Uighurs as ‘genocide’.

  • The south China sea is an important trade route for transportation of crude oil. It creates the route from Arabian gulf to Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan.
  • The Nine-dash line is a self-defined demarcation line adopted by China. It is used by them for their claims of territorialization over major parts of south China sea.
  • Mineral deposits like titaniferous magnetite, zircon, monazite, tin, gold, and chromite are highly exploited in near shore regions in the South China sea.

After Losing Election How Can Mamata Banerjee Still Be CM?

After Losing Election How Can Mamata Banerjee Still Be CM?

Amidst political violence in the state, Mamata Banerjee has taken the oath as the West Bengal CM for the 3rd time. However, she lost her seat to Suvendu Adhikari of BJP in Nandigram, which led to questions as in how she can be the CM while losing her own seat. Yet, this is not the first time such case is happening. Let’s check out how it is possible and the previous instances.

Disclaimer: We condemn the indiscriminate violence occurring in the state. However, this post was made on the account of receiving several requests for explaining the ‘unelected CM’ phenomenon.

Crux of the Matter

Recent Elections
TMC won with 213 seats in the recent West Bengal elections. However, Mamata Banerjee lost to BJP’s Suvendu Adhikari on the Nandigram seat. And yet, she took oath as the Chief Minister for the 3rd consecutive time today.

Here’s How That Happened
Article 164 (4) of the Constitution says

A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the Legislature of the State shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a Minister

  • Simply put, Mamata Banerjee has to be elected to the State Legislature (Assembly/ Council) within 6 months via bypoll.
  • Bypoll occurs when a seat becomes empty in between the time of elections.
  • However, West Bengal does not have Legislative Council (state equivalent of Rajya Sabha). Therefore, the only route for her is to win direct (Legislative Assembly) elections.

Any Previous Instances?
Several actually:

  • Uddhav Thackeray – Maharashtra (2019).
  • Yogi Adityanath – UP (2017).
  • Nitish Kumar – Bihar (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 {2}, 2017, 2020).

All 3 came from the Legislative Council, out of which only Nitish Kumar contested the Legislative Assembly once – elected once in 1985.

More Cases From The Past

  • Morarji Desai – Bombay State (1952).
  • C Rajagopalachari – Madras State (1952).
    Rajagopalachari was famously elected through the Legislative Council, being elected on the Madras Chambers of Commerce quota.
  • Tribhuvan Narayan Singh, CM of UP, lost the bypoll in 1970 and resigned soon. He was reportedly the 1st CM to lose in such bypoll.


  • 2009: Jharkhand CM Shibu Soren lost bypoll.
  • As per India Today, however, he “briefly toyed with the idea of clinging to power through reappointment to get a fresh lease of six months to get elected”.
  • His resignation came amidst strong pressure from opposition then.

  • Mamata Banerjee was the first ever woman Minister of Railways. She held the office twice, first in NDA from 1999-2001 and then in UPA, from 2009-11.
  • She is the 8th Chief Minister of West Bengal, succeeding Buddhadeb Bhattacharya. She was also the first female CM of the state.
  • Before Nandigram, she stood from Bhawanipur constituency in Kolkata

Furore Over Tripura DM’s Actions In Agartala

Furore Over Tripura DM's Actions In Agartala

Last week DM Shailesh Kumar Yadav of Tripura was in news for allegedly stopping a wedding post-curfew time. However, several questions have arisen over the incident regarding breaking of Covid protocols by both civilians and politicians. In that light, let’s look at what happened and some aspects surrounding it.

Crux of the Matter

Agartala of Tripura has been in news over a marriage occurring after 10pm curfew. The controversy erupted over the handling of the issues by District Magistrate Shailesh Kumar Yadav.

Chain Of Events

  • A wedding was taking place allegedly after 10pm at Manikya Court in Agartala.
  • DM Shailesh Kumar Yadav, along with several policemen, entered the venue.


I apologise if any individual or group is pained by last night’s action. But what was done last night was only for the benefit and well being of people. My aim was not to pain or humiliate anyone.

DM Yadav to the Press later


  • Several cases of harsh treatment by Police have been reported.
    However, this was a notable case due to a District Magistrate physically thrashing people as per the alleged video.
  • Some people have complained why such treatment is not applied on politicians.
  • Then again, the side of the DM has been defended with argument that civilians cannot abandon their duties though the politicians do so.

History Of US’ Reluctance To Aid India

History Of US Reluctance To Aid India

So finally, US will supply the vaccine ‘raw materials’ to India. However, the process, which included long diplomatic talks as well as request from the Serum Institute CEO, has been a repetition of the past. In that light, let’s look at previous instances of US delaying aid (or actively damaging Indian interests) at crucial points.

Crux of the Matter


The United States has identified sources of specific raw material urgently required for Indian manufacture of the Covishield vaccine that will immediately be made available for India

Jake Sullivan, US National Security Advisor on 25 April

The release of raw materials for Covid vaccine production came days after criticism from India. On 16 April, even Serum Institute of India (SII) CEO Adar Poonawalla had tweeted:

Other Instances Of US ‘Aid’ To India
Let us have a look at few other instances where US has delayed aid to India at some crucial points.

1971: India-Pakistan War

  • US, under President Nixon, openly backed Pakistan.
  • US brought warships to aid Pakistan. They backed only when USSR brought its ships to aid India.

Nuclear Prohibition In 70s

  • 1978: US ratified Nuclear Nonproliferation Act.
  • It required non-signatories to allow IAEA inspection of their nuclear facilities.
  • India refused, after which US stopped aid in developing nuclear facilities of India.

Supercomputers In 80s

  • US denied India import of Cray Supercomputers.
  • Denied due to nuclear embargo – US believed India would use Supercomputers for combat.
  • Slowed India’s progress even though India developed indigenous PARAM 8000 in 1991.

Cryogenic Engine In 90s

  • Cryogenic engines are considered vital for satellite launches.
  • 1991: Soviet and India signed agreement for cryogenics with ‘transfer of technology’ (ToT).
  • US made Soviet remove ToT, which slowed India’s cryogenic development by years.

Kargil War In ’99

  • India asked GPS information of Kargil as Pakistani army settled in.
  • US refused, depriving India of key info which could have reduced the damage borne in the war.

  •  The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NavIC, is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. The system was developed partly because access to foreign government-controlled global navigation satellite systems is not guaranteed in hostile situations. 
  • The United States, Russia, Japan, India, France and China are the only countries that have operational cryogenic rocket engines.