How Did Egyptians build pyramids?

Recently archaeologists stumbled upon remains of what they say is largest ancient city ever found in Egypt. Discovered near Luxor, home of the legendary Valley of the Kings, the city is estimated to be 3,000 years old. Talking about Egyptian marvels, ever wondered how their pyramids were constructed? Let's quench that thirst.

Recently archaeologists stumbled upon remains of what they say is largest ancient city ever found in Egypt. Discovered near Luxor, home of the legendary Valley of the Kings, the city is estimated to be 3,000 years old. Talking about Egyptian marvels, ever wondered how their pyramids were constructed? Let’s quench that thirst.

Crux of the Matter

The Great Pyramid Of Giza
It is the largest of the pyramids in the pyramid complex in present-day Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Made for pharaoh Khufu, the 139 m pyramid is the oldest of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World.

What Went Inside It?

  • Built: Using 2.3 million stones weighing overall 6 million tonnes. 
  • Stones used: Local limestone from the Giza Plateau, white limestone from Tura, and granite blocks from Aswan 
  • Estimated time: 27 years to build by 100,000 workers, as per historian Herodotus.

Ramping It Up
Archaeologists suggest that a ramp or a series of ramps made of earth or brick may have helped workers lift and place stone as the pyramids rose from the desert.

Sledges For The Workers
As per a team of physicists, to move the stones over land, large sledges were pushed or pulled by workers. The sand in front of the sledge was dampened with water to reduce friction, making it easier to move the sledge.

Pathway To Afterlife?
Pyramids were built for religious purposes as Egyptians believed in an afterlife. When the physical body expired, the ka or the spiritual double enjoyed eternal life.

Curiopedia
  • The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact.
  • The Great Pyramid of Cholula is a huge complex located in Cholula, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World, as well as the largest pyramid by volume known to exist in the world today.
  • An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities.

Scientists Revived An Ancient Life Form Recently

Scientists Revived An Ancient Life Form Recently

Not dinosaurs unfortunately, however, Japanese scientists have got a headstart with resurrecting dormant microbes, lying at the south pacific seabed for more than a 100 million years. So how did they find these ancient life forms? Can this be a breakthrough towards resurrecting mammoths or even dinosaurs?

Crux of the Matter

Rise Of The Sleeping Microbes?
Scientists from Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology have revived microbes that were in a dormant state for 100 million+ years, giving us a glimpse at what life was like in the past.

The team led by geomicrobiologist Yuki Morono found that the microbes survived in the South Pacific seabed, a sediment poor in nutrients, but having enough oxygen to allow them to breathe. It was published by Nature Communications.

What Is A Microbe?
A micro-organism that is amongst the earth’s simplest organisms, that has the ability to live in extreme environments where other developed life forms cannot survive.

It exists as a unicellular or multicellular living organism or even as a cell cluster and are of six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses.

How Did They Stumble Upon It?
As per study co-author Steven D’Hondt, “In the oldest sediment we’ve drilled, with the least amount of food, there were still these ancient life forms”, After incubation of these microbes by scientists, the microbes began to eat and multiply.

What Does This Imply?
The new finding depicts how some of Earth’s simplest living structures don’t have the concept of a lifespan. Using DNA and RNA gene profiling, bigger creatures may be resurrected in the future.

Can The Woolly Mammoth Be Revived?
The possibility is a tall order right now. Though futuristic technology can help explain why the elephant ancestor went extinct in the first place.

Last year scientists revived genes from a population of Siberian Island mammoths that survived until around 4,000 years ago.

Curiopedia
  • Micrographia is a historically significant book by Robert Hooke about his observations through various lenses. It is particularly notable for being the first book to illustrate insects, plants etc. as seen through microscopes.
  • The word mammoth was first used in Europe during the early 17th century, when referring to maimanto tusks discovered in Siberia. They were called “mammon’s horn” and were often found in washed-out river banks. Some local people claimed to have seen a living mammoth.
  • The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected in 1939. Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine after he discovered an enzyme that can synthesize RNA in the laboratory.