Malcolm X Murder To Be Reinvestigated?

Malcolm X Murder To Be Reinvestigated?

With the discovery of new evidence, the family of renowned activist Malcolm X have has demanded a further investigation in the case of his murder while also alleging the role of the FBI in it. With that, let’s look at who was Malcolm X and how the mystery of his assassination continues to be shrouded in doubt.

Crux of the Matter

Calls For Reinvestigation
Daughters of Malcolm X have demanded a new investigation in his murder case amidst new evidence. They have also alleged that NYPD and the FBI were involved in the murder.


New Evidence

  • The new evidence found is the deathbed letter of Raymond Wood, a former NYPD officer.
  • Wood wrote that he was assigned the responsibility to arrest Malcolm’s security team days before his murder.

Netflix had released Who Killed Malcolm X? series in 2020. The series led to a review of the convictions of the case, although the review is still going.

Who Was Malcolm X?

  • Born: 19 May 1925 in Nebraska.
  • Renowned activist for Black civil rights and a key member of ‘Nation of Islam’.
    Nation for Islam: Movement for Black civil rights having Islamic elements.
  • Reportedly faced attacks from KKK in childhood – influenced his future activism.
  • Imprisoned from 1946 to 1952 for larceny – joined Nation for Islam in that period.

His Rise

  • Malcolm became the National Representative of the group after his prison term.
  • Increased its influence rapidly amidst the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s.
  • This was also the time when renowned boxer Muhammad Ali converted to Islam.
  • Malcolm X was against ‘mainstream’ movements like Martin Luther King Jr. who preached nonviolence.
  • He was more radical in his criticism of racism and American society.
  • However, he left the ‘Nation’ in 1964 over his radicalism and differences.

Assassination

  • He was assassinated on 21 February 1965 while delivering a lecture in Harlem.
  • 3 Nationmembers were convicted.
  • However, several reports claim that 2 of them were innocent, and that FBI was the real planner of the murder.
Curiopedia
  • In January 2019, members of the families of Malcolm X, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy were among dozens of Americans who signed a public statement calling for a truth and reconciliation commission to persuade Congress or the Justice Department to review the assassinations of all four leaders during the 1960s.
  • A truth commission is an official body tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government, in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past. An earlier and perhaps the first such commission occurred in Uganda in 1974 and was known as the Truth Commission: Commission of Inquiry into the Disappearances of People in Uganda since 25 January 1971.
  • In 1963, Malcolm X began a collaboration with journalist Alex Haley on his life story, The Autobiography of Malcolm X. He told Haley, “If I’m alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle.” Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination.

Parliament Passes the Arms Act, 1959 (Amendment) Bill

Parliament has passed the bill to amend the Arms Act, 1959 which will bring in effective control over arms and ammunition by introducing new categories of offences which are very important for safety and security of the country. The bill was passed in Lok Sabha on December 9 and by Rajya Sabha on December 10.

Crux of the Matter
  • The Bill increases the duration of the validity of a firearm license from 3 years to 5 years.
  • A person can now only hold 2 firearms and will have to deposit the third one with police station concerned or authorised gun dealers.
  • Heirloom or heritage weapons can be kept if they have been de-activated.
  • The bill allows members of rifle clubs to use any firearm for target practice instead of the only point 22 bore rifles or air rifles.  
  • The bill now has a provision for life imprisonment for snatching arms from police or other security forces.
  • The bill also accords a special status to sportspersons who need firearms and ammunition for practice and participating in tournaments. 
  • The central government can now make rules to track firearms and ammunition from manufacturer to purchaser to detect, investigate, and analyse illicit manufacturing and trafficking.
Curiopedia

The Arms Act, 1959 is a legislation of the Parliament of India to consolidate and amend the law relating to arms and ammunition in order to curb illegal weapons and violence stemming from them. It replaced the Indian Arms Act, 1878. The Act has undergone many changes since 1959. There was also controversy around air guns to be included as part of this act which was rejected by the Supreme Court of India during and amendment in 2010. With approximately five civilian firearms per 100 people, India is the 120th most armed country in the world. As of 2016, there are 3,369,444 firearm licenses active in India with 9,700,000 firearms registered to them. More Info

All 4 Accused in Hyderabad Horror Killed in Police Encounter

All 4 individuals accused of the brutal gangrape, murder and burning of a 26 year old veterinarian in Hyderabad, were shot dead today morning by the police. They had been taken to the site for reconstruction of crime scene when they allegedly tried to escape. They were killed in the ensuing encounter.

Crux of the Matter
  • The nation was shocked by the news of the inhuman gangrape and murder of a 26 year old veterinarian doctor in Hyderabad on 29 Nov. The victim’s body was found in a burnt state near a highway.
  • The 4 men accused of the crime were apprehended by the police the next day. All 4 had confessed to the crime. Their family members had further publicly disowned them for their ghastly act.
  • The Hyderabad police had also been accused of dealing with the situation callously when the victim’s family had initially filed a complaint.
  • The nation was up in arms to protest the national situation regarding the safety of women in the country. People took to the streets across the country to demand swifter action and stricter justice from politicians as well as policemen.
  • Within a week of the crime, the Hyderabad police had taken the accused to the crime spot for reconstruction of incidents. The accused allegedly tried to escape and even managed to snatch some weapons, as per police sources. In the ensuing crossfire, all 4 were killed.
Curiopedia

Encounter killing is a term used in South Asia, especially India and Pakistan since the late 20th century to describe extrajudicial killings by the police or the armed forces, allegedly in self-defence, when they encounter suspected gangsters or terrorists. In the 1990s and the mid-2000s, the Mumbai Police used encounter killings to attack the city’s underworld, and the practice spread to other large cities. In Pakistan, the Sindh Police is notorious for extrajudicial killings through fake encounters especially in Karachi. Critics are sceptical of many of these reported incidents, and further complain that the wide acceptance of the practice has led to incidents of the police staging fake encounters to cover-up the killing of suspects when they are either in custody or are unarmed. More Info

Indrani Mukerjea Turns Approver against P Chidambaram

INX Media Co-Founder Indrani Mukerjea, also the prime accused in the Sheena Bora murder case has turned approver against former Union finance minister P Chidambaram and his son in the INX Media case. She had written to former finance minister Arun Jaitley in July 2017, volunteering to testify against them and only after which CBI decided to speak to her.

Crux of the Matter
  • In her letter to Jaitley, Indrani provided details of her incarceration in connection with the murder of her daughter and claimed innocence as she sought his help to “get out of the mess”.
  • There was no mention of P Chidambaram in the FIR; but he was named in a charge sheet filed on October 18 wherein Indrani was an “approver”.
  • After Jaitley forwarded the letter to the CBI her first statement was recorded in Byculla Jail before the investigating officer and later before a magistrate in Feb 2018.
  • She gave evidences of payments made to Karti Chidambaram by INX Media for securing clearance in 2007 from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board for the overseas investment received by the broadcaster that was in excess of the approved amount.
  • Recently, she alleged that she was poisoned in jail. She is seeking bail again on medical grounds which has been rejected multiple times.
Curiopedia

Indrani Mukerjea is a former HR consultant and media executive. In 2007 she co-founded INX Media with her ex-husband, where she took on the role of CEO. In 2009 she resigned from the company and later sold her stake in it. In August 2015, she was arrested by Mumbai Police and charged as the main accused in the alleged murder of her daughter, Sheena Bora. INX News was incorporated on 22 December 2006 with an authorised capital of ₹7.5 crore divided into 75 lakh shares of ₹10 each. More Info

Kamlesh Tiwari Murder Case Sees Swift Investigation Results

Controversial Hindu Samaj Party leader Kamlesh Tiwari was found brutally murdered in Lucknow on October 18. He had earlier been arrested on charges of blasphemy in 2015 and was a vocal proponent of Hindutva. A fringe radical Islamist outfit, Al-Hind brigade claimed responsibility for the murder. The communal sensitivity of the matter led to a speedy investigation and arrest of seven radicalised youths as suspects within a week of the murder.

Crux of the Matter
  • Kamlesh Tiwari had been stabbed 15 times, shot and had his throat slashed in a brutal execution style murder.
  • When the fringe Hindutva leader had made derogatory statements about Prophet Muhammad in 2015, fringe radical Islamist elements had called for his head.
  • The murder happened within a few days of the final hearings of the Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi case.
  • The UP police conducted a speedy investigation of the homicide case with co-operation other state forces and Anti Terrorism Squad. Ashfaq Hussain and Moinuddin Pathan had been nabbed by Gujarat ATS at the Gujarat-Rajasthan border. A total of 7 alleged conspirators have been arrested so far.
  • The swift action by the police forces has prevented the sensitive matter from devolving into a major communal conflagration.
Curiopedia

Blasphemy Laws in India – In 1860, laws were created in British India that made it a “crime to disturb a religious assembly, trespass on burial grounds, insult religious beliefs or intentionally destroy or defile a place or an object of worship, punishable by up to 10 years in jail.” The British-era section 295A of the penal code was introduced in 1927 to prevent hate speech that insults or attempts to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of any class of citizen with deliberate and malicious intention to outrage their religious feelings but the main purpose of this law has been to maintain “public order in a multireligious and religiously sensitive society.” An important difference between the offence in the Indian Penal Code and English common law is that the defendant must have a “deliberate and malicious intention of outraging religious feelings” in the Indian code while English common law had no such inclusion. Section 295A has, nevertheless, been used a number of times to prevent free and honest discussion on religious issues and remains a threat to freedom of expression. The same section 295A appears in the penal codes of Pakistan and Myanmar where it is used as a blasphemy law. More Info