History Of Rafale

History Of Rafale

After negotiations spanning over decades, the Rafale jets finally arrived in India, providing a boost to Indian Air Force’s capabilities.

Crux of the Matter

Timeline
On 29 July2020, the first batch of Rafale jets arrived at Ambala in Haryana state.

  • 1999: The Indian Air Force (IAF) demanded an upgrade in defensive capabilities after the Kargil war.
  • 2001: 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) were demanded by the IAF. The NDA Government issued the RFI (Request for Information) in the same year.
  • 2007: The UPA Government cleared the request for 126 MMRCA. 6 companies were issued the RFP (Request for Proposal) in the same year, demanding 126 MMRCA.
  • 2011: Dassault Aviation for Rafale was selected for exclusive negotiations.
  • 2012: Dassault Aviation for Rafale won the contract, and also signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Reliance Group to partner in defence sector and to facilitate the Rafale deal. Dassault agreed to help Reliance to set up ₹1,500 crore factory in Bangalore to produce wings for jets created by HAL in India.
  • 2015: The BJP Govt withdrew the tender of 126 jets.
  • 2016: India and France agreed on a €7.87 billion deal for 36 jets in “flyaway condition”.
  • 2020: 5 jets arrive in India, with all 36 jets to be present in India by 2022.

Problems In 2012 Negotiations

  • 18 Rafale jets were to be obtained in “fly away condition” – 108 to be developed by HAL using transfer of technology
  • Warranty: India wanted warranty of jets produced by HAL from Dassault, which was initially declined.
  • Dassault envisaged 30 million man-hours to produce 108 Rafale jets in India. However, HAL estimated the man-hours as 2.7 times of the Dassault proposal.

Offset Clause And Reliance
The Deal was agreed with an offset clause, meaning that 50% of the total budget would be invested in India by Dassault. Consequently, Dassault agreed with Reliance to form Dassault-Reliance Aerospace (DRA), done after their 2012 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The key components for the jets would be made in India by DRA. In its 2018 statement, Reliance stated that it will get 25% of the offset, with the remaining to be shared between Thales, Saffran, MBDA, etc.

Curiopedia
  • The Rim Fire was a massive wildfire that started in a remote canyon in Stanislaus National Forest, in California. The fire was caused by a hunter’s illegal fire that got out of control, and it was named for its proximity to the Rim of the World vista point, a scenic overlook on Highway 120 leading up to Yosemite.
  • The first evidence of wildfires is rhyniophytoid plant fossils preserved as charcoal, discovered in the Welsh Borders, dating to the Silurian period (about 420 million years ago). Smoldering surface fires started to occur sometime before the Early Devonian period 405 million years ago.
  • A controlled or prescribed burn is a fire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. A controlled burn may also refer to the intentional burning of slash and fuels through burn piles.

Bipin Rawat's Watch Continues, Now as Chief of Defence Staff

India’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) has been announced. As expected, Bipin Rawat, the Army Chief that retires this year, was named for the Herculian post of CDS. He will serve as the joint-man of the armed forces until the age of 65.

Crux of the Matter
  • Narendra Modi, in his Independence Day Speech, announced that the post of Chief of Defence Staff will be created.
  • Bipin Rawat, who was retiring on 31st December as the Army Chief, was appointed as India’s first Chief of Defence Staff. Rawat, who is 61, will be able to serve as incumbent until the age of 65 as per the amendment that the retiring age of CDS would be 65 years.
  • Bipin Rawat will be 4-star General, who will lead the Generals of the tri-services in joint operations, logistics, procurement, and strategy development.
  • He will also head the newly developed Cyber and Space Departments of the tri-services.
  • CDS Rawat who has commanded the Gorkha Regiment and has been active on LAC also has acquired a gamut of experience through partaking in missions against Pakistan and China. His progressive mindset has developed the Indian Army technologically, mentally, and strategically.
Curiopedia

Bipin Rawat was commissioned into the 5th battalion of 11 Gorkha Rifles on 16 December 1978, the same unit as his father. He has lots of experience in high altitude warfare and spent ten years conducting Counter-insurgency operations. During his career span of 37 years, he has been awarded for gallantry and distinguished service with the Param Vishisht Seva Medal, Uttam Yudh Seva Medal, Ati Vishisht Seva Medal, Yudh Seva Medal, Sena Medal, Vishisht Seva Medal and the COAS Commendation on two occasions and the Army Commander’s Commendation. More Info

Union Cabinet Nod for Chief of Defence Staff

Narendra Modi led Union Cabinet gave a nod for the post of Chief of Defence Staff. The officer will be a four-star general but will have seniority over the heads of three armed forces. The CDS will provide jointmanship to the combination of armed forces.

Crux of the Matter
  • The post of the CDS received a green signal from the Union Cabinet. However, the name of the incumbent has not been announced yet.
  • CDS will deal with the integration of the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. As a part of the integration, CDS will formulate joint commands and overlook the equipment purchases for the same.
  • CDS will also deal with the Cyber and Space related areas of the Tri-service.
  • CDS will act as the Principal Military Advisor to the Defense Minister. CDS will also be Military Advisor to the Nuclear Command Authority.
  • CDS will also look after the implementation of the Five-year Defense Capital Acquisition Plan (DCAP) and Annual Acquisition Plans (AAP).
Curiopedia

Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is a proposed position for the combined chief of the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy. It was first officially suggested in 1999 following the Kargil War through the recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee. The official call was made public by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2019. It is speculated that whereas the Defense Secretary will be the main “defence” advisor, the CDS will assume the role of being the main “military” advisory, acting as the single-point military adviser to the government and Prime Minister. India is the only large democracy which does not have a single point military advisor; with all P5 countries having one. More Info

Veteran Military Leaders of India Discuss the Requirement of Chief of Defence Staff

A panel discussion at the third Military Literature Festival held in Punjab talked about the need for the post of a Chief of Defence Staff in India. Considering the contemporary times, India needs a CDS and will get one in the coming days, said former Defence Secretary Shekhar Dutt.

Crux of the Matter
  • Lt Gen (Retd) Aditya Singh, Air Marshal (Retd) Manmohan Bahadur, former defence secretary Shekhar Dutt, advisor to British High Commission New Delhi Brig Gavin Thompson and Lt Gen (Retd) Sanjeev Langer were the panel members who discussed the importance and role of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) in India.
  • Panel members agreed to the proposition that an apex body to assist ‘jointmanship‘ is required. CDS is aimed at providing joint military advice to the conflux of security services.
  • CDS would establish co-ordination between the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force.
  • The position of the CDS would be a four-star official, who would be considered senior to the other three four-star officials of Army, Navy, and Air Force.
  • Comparing with security models of USA, France, China et al., Lt Gen (Retd) Sanjeev Langer proposed to depute armed forces permanently into the Ministry of Defence and let the CDS manage the conflux and its aspects of training, joint planning, modern warfare, budgeting, defence equipment purchases, et al.
  • A CDS will be in charge of devising warfare tactics and operational plans for Armed forces. Previously it was handled by the head of the Ministry of Defence.
Curiopedia

Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is a proposed position for the combined chief of the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy. It was first officially suggested in 1999 following the Kargil War through the recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee. The official call was made public by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day speech on 15 August 2019. It is speculated that whereas the Defense Secretary will be the main “defence” advisor, the CDS will assume the role of being the main “military” advisory, acting as the single-point military adviser to the government and Prime Minister. India is the only large democracy which does not have a single point military advisor; with all P5 countries having one. More Info