History Of Naxal Movement

History Of Naxal Movement

The recent Naxal attack that took the lives of 22 soldiers in Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh is considered to be a major assault in the last few years. Let us have a look at the history and origin of the Naxal movement who are also known as Maoists.

Crux of the Matter

Origin Of Naxal Movement

  • The Naxalite Movement has its origin in the peasant uprising of 1967 which took place at Naxalbari Village, West Bengal.
  • The peasants, enraged by the exploitation of landlords raised their bows and arrows in rebellion.
  • The peasant revolt was instigated by communist leaders like Charu Mazumdar who was the leader of CPI-M.
  • The Naxalites are considered to be the left wing extremists associated with Maoists.

History of CPI-M

  • 1964: Communist Party of India (Marxist) split from the united Communist Party of India.
  • 1967: CPI-M leaders Charu Mazumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal launced the armed struggle against landlords.
  • 1969: Inspired by the Maoist ideology, Mazumdar separated from CPI-M and formed the Communist Party of India Marxist- Leninist.

Difference Between Marxism And Maoism

  • Marxism: The Marxist- Leninist ideology believed the proletariat or the working class to be the bearers of revolution.
  • Maoism- The Maoist ideology believed the peasants or the farmers to be the bearers of socialist revolution

Major Naxal Incidents In The Last Decade
Over the years, the violence has increased and there has been several major naxal incidents.

  • April 2010 – The naxalites killed more than 70 CRPF personnels. This is also considered to be one of the most deadliest Naxal assault.
  • May 2013 – The Congress rally happening in the Darbha Valley, Chhattisgarh was targeted. Around 25 leaders were killed.
  • 2017- 25 CRPF officers were killed in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh
  • 2021- The recent Naxal incident in Chhattisgarh that killed around 22 security personnels

  • In the late 1970s, the Peruvian Communist Party, Shining Path developed and synthesized Maoism into Marxism–Leninism–Maoism. It is a contemporary variety of Marxism–Leninism. 
  • The political slogan “Workers of the world, unite!” is one of the rallying cries from the The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A variation of this phrase (“Workers of all lands, unite”) is also inscribed on Marx’s tombstone.
  • The Order of Lenin was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930. The order was the highest civilian decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union.

Naxals Attack Indian Troops Even as the Country Enters COVID-Lockdown

Naxal Attack

In one of the worst Naxal attacks in two years, 17 soldiers were killed and 15 severely injured after a fierce gun battle between Naxals and security forces took place in the dense forests of Bastar, Chhattisgarh.

Crux of the Matter

Troops Trapped
On March 21, 2020, nearly more than 500 soldiers of District Reserve Group (DRG), Special Task Force (STF), and Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) had gone on a search mission to the dense forests of Kasalpad after receiving a tip that large number of Maoists are going to gather there. However, they did not find any and while they were returning, they were ambushed and cornered in Sukma’s Minpa by approximately 250 Naxals.

Heavy firing between the troops and Naxals lasted for more than 2 hours. During the attack, 3 personnel were killed, whereas 14 others were missing. Bodies of these 14 jawans were found in the forest by search teams. Another 15 soldiers were severely injured. Chhattisgarh DGP Awasthi said that the attack was carried out the 1st Battalion of CPI (Maoist), Madavi Hidma. Reportedly, the Naxals stole 12 AK 47 Assault Rifles, 1 Excalibur rifle, 1 INSAS rifle, and 1 Under Barrel Grenade Launcher from the slain troops.

Reduced Naxal Violence
Last such attack was witnessed in the same region in July 2018. In that ambush 24 CRPF personnel were killed. On 1st May 2019, an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast occurred in Maharashtra’s Gadchiroli. This Maoists-orchestrated attack killed 15 Policemen and 1 individual.

However, the number of attacks in recent years has reduced. As per the data by South Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP), the number of violent incidents in 2015 was 1,089, in 2016 – 1,048, in 2017 – 908, and in 2018 – 883. In the year 2010, there were 2,213 violent attacks, the highest since the formation of CPI(M) in 2004. In 2011 – 1760, in 2012 – 1,136, and in 2013 – 1,145 attacks were reported as per SATP.

The attacks come at a time when the threat of the Coronavirus pandemic hovers over India’s head. Even as India tries to stop the community spread of the virus, such attacks pose a massive threat to the rising number of cases in India, that have crossed the 400-mark.

Wondering what is Coronavirus? How does it spread? Which age group does it affect the most? During self-quarantine, read Summachar’s complete coverage on Coronavirus here.


Naxalites are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to the splitting in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In recent years, it has spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist). Dalits and other lower-caste members have also joined the militant movement. The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency again gained international media attention after the 2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley resulted in the deaths of around 24 Indian National Congress leaders, including the former state minister Mahendra Karma and the Chhattisgarh Congress chief Nand Kumar Patel. More Info

3rd Phase of Jharkhand Elections Record 62.6% Voter Turnout

The third phase of the Jharkhand assembly elections 17 constituencies across eight districts was concluded with 62.6% voter turnout till 5 pm on December 12.

Crux of the Matter
  • 309 candidates, including 32 women candidates are contesting in the 3rd phase.
  • Polling at Ranchi, Hatia, Kanke, Barkatha and Ramgarh seats ended at 5 pm and at 3 pm in rest of the constituencies.
  • 7,016 polling stations were set up out of which 1,008 were identified as ‘critical‘ and 543 as ‘sensitive‘ in Naxal-affected areas with 2,014 polling stations equipped with webcasting facilities.
  • Due to the tense situation after the passage of the CAB, amidst high-security arrangements about 40,000 polling personnel have been deputed.
  • Jharkhand Chief Election Officer Vinay Kumar Choubey said, “polling personnel of 96 polling stations were dropped by helicopters and 10 polling stations have been re-located on security grounds.”
  • The 4th and 5th phase is scheduled to be held on 16th & 20th December 2019.

The Red Corridor is the region in the eastern, central and the southern parts of India that experience considerable Naxalite–Maoist insurgency. These are also areas that suffer from the greatest illiteracy, poverty and overpopulation in modern India. As per the Ministry of Home Affairs, altogether 1,048 incidents of Left-wing extremism (LWE) violence took place in these 10 states in 2016. The districts that comprise the Red Corridor are among the poorest in the country. Areas such as Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Telangana are either impoverished or have significant economic inequality or both. The region has significant natural resources, including mineral, forestry and potential hydroelectric generation capacity. 18 out of 24 districts in the state of Jharkhand are Naxalaite affected and are marked as sensitive areas. More Info

Amit Shah Commands CRPF to Pursue Naxals and their Supporters

Home Minister Amit Shah on Friday visited the CRPF central command on Friday and told the big shots that “action needs to be taken against Urban Naxals and their facilitators.”.

Crux of the Matter
  • Mr. Shah was given a point by point introduction by Director General R.R Bhatnagar on the different aspects of CRPF.
  • He has asked the force to carry out an effective campaign against Naxalism.
  • “The Home Minister directed the CRPF to carry out an effective and decisive campaign against Left Wing Extremism in the next six months. Action needs to be taken against the Urban Naxals and their facilitators,” the CRPF said.

Naxals are members of any political organisation that claims the legacy of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), founded in Calcutta in 1969. The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the largest existing political group in that lineage today in India. The term Naxal derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in West Bengal, where the Naxalite peasant revolt took place in 1967. Naxalites are considered far-left radical communists, supportive of Mao Zedong’s political ideology. Their origin can be traced to the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) following the Naxalbari peasant uprising, leading to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) two years later. Initially, the movement had its epicentre in West Bengal. In later years, it spread to less developed areas of rural southern and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict between Maoist groups known as Naxalites or Naxals, and the Indian government. More than 13,000 people have been killed since the start of the insurgency in 1980, most of them in the period since 1996. To enforce their control over the population, the Maoists have convened kangaroo courts to mete out summary justice, normally death. beatings, or exile. Read More