As India and Pakistan recently announced to adhere to the ceasefire agreed in 2003 after a war, let’s look at the conflicts between the two nations since partition.
Crux of the Matter
India and Pakistan recently announced to follow ceasefire. The ceasefire, originally in 2003, was also brought after a war. With that in the background, now would be the right time to look at the two nations’ conflicts.
October 1947- 1st Kashmir War
- 1st Indo-Pak war as Pakistani tribesmen invaded Kashmir.
- Kashmir sought Indian aid and acceded to India.
- 1 Jan 1949: LoC established after the ceasefire.
- Retaliation by India after Pakistan initiated ‘Operation Gibraltar’.
- In the operation, Pakistani soldiers attempted to start an ‘insurgency’ in Kashmir by disguising themselves as local Kashmiris.
- War ended in January 1966.
1971 – Bangladesh Formation
- Early 1971: East Pakistan (Bangladesh) declared independence from West Pakistan.
- As India announced support for East Pak, West Pak attacked Indian airbases.
- India invaded West Pak and defeated it in 13 days. Also, East Pak is now officially Bangladesh.
Read Summachar coverage of India-Bangladesh ties: History Of India & Bangladesh
May 1999 – Kargil War
- Pakistan occupied territories across LoC on the Indian side.
- India launched airstrikes.
- July 1999: India regained the occupied territories.
February 2019 – Balakot
- In a car bomb attack in Kashmir by Pakistan’s terrorist group Jaish-e- Mohammed, 40 Indian officers were killed.
- 26 February: India launched air strikes on Jaish camps in Balakot, PoK.
- Pakistan captured Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman as his jet was destroyed – returned to India after 60 hrs in captivity.
- An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from the Latin arma, meaning “arms” and –stitium, meaning “a stopping”.
- The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47, adopted on 21 April 1948, concerns the resolution of the Kashmir conflict. Both India and Pakistan raised objections to the Resolution. However, they welcomed mediation by the UN Commission.
- During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial ceasefire on the Western Front as France, the United Kingdom, and Germany observed Christmas. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place throughout the week leading to Christmas, and that British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches.