Remembering the Great Scientist C.V. Raman


Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India (presently the state of Tamil Nadu), who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics and was the first person in Asia to obtain said award for achievements in science. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. In the year 1954, the Indian government honoured him with India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. More Info

India Among Top Countries in Dealing with Climate Change as per CCPI

India ranked 11th in this year’s Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI). India improved its standing by three places compared to the previous year. The CCPI report was released on Monday at the UN Climate Conference COP24 in Katowice.

Crux of the Matter
  • The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2019 is published by Germanwatch and the New Climate Institute along with the Climate Action Network (CAN).
  • India’s performance majorly improved in the Renewable Energy category, joining the group of medium performers.
  • Low levels of per capita GHG emissions and a relatively ambitious mitigation target for 2030 has given India an overall high rating in the emissions category.  
  • Sweden and Morocco are the leading countries by making significant expansion of renewable energy.
  • The countries that scored low in almost all categories are Saudi Arabia, the United States, Iran, South Korea and Taiwan.

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an independent monitoring tool of countries’ climate protection performance. It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables the comparability of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries. Based on standardised criteria, the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of 56 countries and the EU, which are together responsible for more than 90 percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. More Info

New Study predicts Mumbai may be Submerged by 2050


An international study by Climate Central published in the journal of Nature Communications predicts that by the year 2050, large portions of the Mumbai city and its suburbs may be underwater if emissions are not kept in check.

Crux of the Matter
  • Climate Central studied the effects of sea level rise globally using artificial intelligence and satellite imagery to create revised projections for 2030, 2050, and 2100 under different emission scenarios.
  • Stretches of central Mumbai, coastal areas along Navi Mumbai and Thane, and all of Vasai-Virar and Mira Bhayander are at “critical risk”.
  • The study found Mumbai’s green zones that include Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Aarey Milk Colony, Powai, Andheri, Borivali, Kandivali, Mulund, Thane, and Bhiwandi are likely to survive the rise in sea level.
  • Isolated parts of south Mumbai and other marginally-elevated zones do not face much risk.
  • It predicts that cities like Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Alexandria may get submerged and lost to rising waters.

Rise in Sea Levels – Since at least the start of the 20th century, the average global sea level has been rising. Between 1900 and 2016, the sea level rose by 16–21 cm. More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm from 1993 to 2017, which is a trend of roughly 30 cm per century. This acceleration is due mostly to human-caused global warming, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers. Between 1993 and 2018, thermal expansion of the oceans contributed 42% to sea level rise; the melting of temperate glaciers, 21%; Greenland, 15%; and Antarctica, 8%. Climate scientists expect the rate to further accelerate during the 21st century. Projecting future sea level is challenging, due to the complexity of many aspects of the climate system. As climate research into past and present sea levels leads to improved computer models, projections have consistently increased. A conservative estimate of the long-term projections is that each Celsius degree of temperature rise triggers a sea level rise of approximately 2.3 meters over a period of two millennia, an example of climate inertia. More Info

SpaceX Promises to Land Starship on the Moon in 2022


At the 70th International Astronautical Congress in Washington DC, SpaceX president and Cheif Operations Officer Gwynne Shotwell shared their plans and hoped to send the Starship to orbit next year. If all goes well, it will land on moon by 2022 and they will start sending crews to the lunar surface by 2024.

Crux of the Matter
  • 2 Starship prototypes (Mk.1 & Mk.2) are currently in development at SpaceX’s South Texas and Florida facilities.
  • It will be an all-purpose successor and replacement for Falcon 9 with a higher payload capacity and the ability to reach the Moon.
  • SpeaceX intends to conduct high-altitude test flights using the Mk.1 and Mk.2 sometime next year
  • In the past six months, SpaceX deployed the first batch of Starlink broadband internet satellites to space with two successful untethered tests with the Starship Hopper.
  • Elon Musk’s ambition is to send cargo and passengers to the Moon and also establish a human settlement on Mars. 

SpaceX (Space Exploration Technologies Corp.) is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable the colonisation of Mars. More info