Ukraine and Russia have recently been in news over the increasing tensions between them. Ukraine had been a part of the Soviet Union before becoming independent. In regards to this, let us know more about the country and its conflict with Russia.
Crux of the Matter
Formation Of The Soviet Union
The Soviet Union the United Socialist Soviet Republic (USSR) emerged after the 1921 civil war in Russia. It was the largest country in the world. It comprised of 15 soviet republics including Russia.The state was under Communist rule and Vladimir Lenin had emerged as the leader of the Soviet State.
Breakdown Of The Soviet Union
- Several social, economic and political problems paved way for the collapse of the Soviet Union.
- The Policy of Glasnost introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev allowed for the first time participation of other parties for election.
- Using this new freedom, several republics started independence movement.
- In 1991, a coup was staged but it failed. Gorbachev had been put under house arrest.
- By then, several republics became independent and Soviet Union was officially dissolved in December, 1991.
15 separate countries emerged after the Soviet Union dissolved- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Major Events In Ukraine After Independence
- 1991: Ukraine became independent.
- 1994: It joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace agreement.
- 2004: Orange Revolution took place and mass protests happened after pro-Russian candidate won the presidential elections. Re-elections happened where Viktor Yushchenko won.
- 2006: Russia shut off gas supply to Ukraine causing economic slowdown.
- 2008: Talks between Ukraine and European Union (EU) began.
- 2010: Pro-Russian candidate Viktor Yanukovych became the President.
- 2013- Ukraine withdrew from talk with EU leading to protests in the country.
Conflict Between Ukraine And Russia
- The relationship between Ukraine and Russia became strained in 2014 after Russia took control of Crimea, and seized parts of Donetsk and Luhansk.
- EU and US imposed sanctions on Russia. NATO and the Western governments have accused Russia of sending regular troops into Ukraine.
- Tensions escalated in April, 2021 after a Ukranian soldier was killed in a fight between Ukranian and pro-Russian separatists.
- It is being expected that Russia will soon have more than 120,000 troops on Ukraine’s border.
- It is estimated that more than 10,000 people have been killed so far.
- In 1863, use of the Ukrainian language in print was effectively prohibited by the Russian Empire. This severely curtailed literary activity in the area, and Ukrainian writers were forced to either publish their works in Russian or release them in Austrian controlled Galicia.
- Following Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to power. Stalin suppressed all political opposition to his rule inside the Communist Party and inaugurated a command economy.
- The USSR took an early lead in the Space Race with the first ever satellite and the first human spaceflight. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union deployed troops in Afghanistan in 1979.