Greece and Turkey have witnessed an increase in mutual animosity in recent times, with issues like Hagia Sophia or research vessels adding to the strain. Let us have a look at the long-standing history of Greece and Turkey.
Crux of the Matter
What Happened In Recent?
Turkey recently sent Oruc Reis, a research vessel, in the disputed Mediterranean sea to search for oil and gas deposits. The disputed region is claimed by both Greece and Turkey as their own. In return, Greece would hold navy and airforce exercises starting near its Crete island.
- According to Greek mythology Iliad, Greek queen Helen was abducted/escaped to Troy which initiated the famous Trojan War. Experts locate Troy in Turkey, with its modern-day name being Hisarlik.
- 11th century AD: Conflicts between the Seljuq dynasty of Turkey and the Byzantine empire of Greece were initiated.
- 1453: Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine empire, was captured by Ottoman Turks. Greece then came under Ottoman and Venetian rule.
- 1714-18: Ottomans won the war against the Venetians with the aid of local Greek people. Ottoman control weakened in Greece after their defeat against Russia in the Ottoman-Russian war.
- 1821-32: Greek war of freedom against the Ottoman empire occurred. Greece emerged victorious with British, French, and Russian aid.
- 1919-22: War ensued between Greece and the Ottoman Empire after the latter was being partitioned following defeat in World War I. Greece lost the war, but relations between the two improved near World War II.
- 1941: Turkey sent food supplies after a famine in Greece.
- 1950s: Conflict regarding Cyprus started between Greece and Turkey after World War II. Turkey invaded northern Cyprus after Greece supported a military coup in the place. Consequently, Cyprus has been divided into 3 parts since 1974.
The Northern part is controlled by the Turkish-Cypriot Government, while the Southern part under Greek Cypriot Government. The Middle buffer zone is controlled by the United Nations.
- 1970-87: Greece and Turkey have been engaged in conflict over the sovereignty of the Aegean Sea. Tensions increased between the two in 1987, when Greece gave threats of war after a Turkish research ship entered the contested region of the Aegean Sea.
- 2005: Greece supported Turkey’s European Union (EU) membership.
- 2016: Several Turkish citizens took asylum in Greece after a failed coup in Turkey.
- 2017: Recep Erdogan became the first Turkish President in 65 years to visit Greece. However, the visit turned hostile as a heated discussion ensued over several issues.
- The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem about the Trojan War traditionally attributed to Homer. It is set during the final weeks of the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states. Various battles and the internal quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles are described.
- The Crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. The Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression.
- Countries located on more than one continent are called transcontinental states or intercontinental states. Between Europe and Asia – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and the Republic of Turkey have territory in both the continents.
- Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire. Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.
- BBC – The Eastern Mediterranean tinderbox: Why Greek-Turkish rivalries have expanded
- Live Science – Ancient Troy: The City & the Legend
- The Indian Express – Explained: Why Turkey wants to convert Hagia Sophia into a mosque
- The Guardian – Confrontational Erdoğan stuns Greek hosts on Athens visit
- History – Constantinople
- Hindustan Times – After Hagia Sophia, Erdogan reconverts Turkey’s historic Chora church to mosque